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p/i, / CO 77. //.J 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




FROM THE FUND GIVEN 
IN MEMORY OF 

FREDERIC HILBORN HALL 

Clau of 191 



1889-1910 




Sco<^ ii^e*^>.^^l 



SOMNOLISM AND PSYCHEISM 



MNCE OF THE SOUL AND THE PHENOMENA 

OF NEEVATION, 



AS REYBALKD BY 



i^ital IftttgDftiBm nr 30ftBsratri8m, 



CONSIDERED PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PHILOSOPHICALLY: 



WITH NOTES 



OF 



MtatMxk attn H&att^itsil (I0)pperience< 



BY 



JOSEPH W. HADDOCK, M.D., 



SECOND EDITION, 

ENLARGED AND ILLUSTRATED WITH RN6RAYINO!:. 



LONDON: 

JAMES S. HODSON, 22, PORTUGAL STREET, 

LINCOLN'S INN. 

1851. 



<T^r* ^ / 



'n..j. -LA'i- 1(-^- 




7,H,Mt(Ci'^^ 



m 






r 

(Q 



LONDON : 

J. S. H0D80N, PBIMTEB, POSTUGAL STREET, 

LINCOLN'S INN. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PRBFACB .......... p. ix 

Chaptbr I. — Introduction pp. i — 5 

Characteristics of the age — Chemistry and geology, new sciences — 
Psycheism, in a similar sense, new — Mesmerism unfairly judged by 
scientific authority — Its greatest wonders not more unlocked for and 
surprising than the electric telegraph — We may never know the real 
nature of mind, or spirit, and matter; in both cases we only know 
some of the laws or properties. 



Chapter II. — Origin and Progress of Vital Maonbtism, or 
Mbsmerism .... ... pp. 6 — 19 

Mesmeric phenomena discoverable among the recorded events of an- 
cient times — ^Egyptian priests, Delphian oracles and Roman sybils — 
Truthfulness of some sybilline oracles asserted by Saint Justin — Recog- 
nized in the hymns of the Romish church — Effect of passes known to 
Asdepiades and Celsus — ^Valentine Greatrakes, confirmation of his 
cores — Perkins, and bis metallic tractors — Conduct of Dr. Falconer, of 
Bath ; humanity sacrificed to scientific pride — Mesmer, his birth and 
progress — He becomes acquainted with a curative power in magnets, 
through his intimacy with the professor of astronomy in Vienna — As* 
certains the mode of using them, as instruments for passing — Success at 
Paris— Offered a reward by the French Government — Retirement and 
death — His theory — Uses of animal magnetism — Marquis de Puysegur 
— Discovery of artificial somnambulism — Mesmer's mode of operating 
— Report of the First French Commission of Enquiry — Conclusions 
of the Second Commission — Origin of the name Mesmerism. 



Chaptbr III — Phbnombna and Phtsiology or Vital Magnbtism, 

OR MbSMBRISM pp. 20 — 62 

Mesmerism comprises a variety of states having one common cha- 
racter — Classification of states — Brain and nervous system — Cerebrum 
— Cerebellum — Cranial nerves — Origin of nerves from brain— Spinal 
marrow, sensory and motor nerves — Connection of cerebellum with 
sympathetic and pnenmo- gastric nerves — State of brain in wakefulness 
and sleep — Motion of brain^ {Circulation within in it— Mechanism of 



vi CONTENTS. 

arteries and Teias ; a perpetual supply, and regulated quantity of bl 
— Simplest mesmeric state— Hypnotism and dectro-Uology — Method 
mesmerising — Coma — Catalepsy; its physiological cause— Insensib! 
to pain ; examples and caution — ^Plireno-mesmerism ; explanations i 
elucidations — ^Phantasy — ^Transfer of state and fieeUng — Cerebral 
ddity and dairroyanoe-^Case of Madame Lagandr^; Terification of 
statements by dissection— Application of the anatomy and physiolog 
the brain. 



Chapter IV. — ^Philobopht and Pstchgloot of Vital Maonbti 

OR MB8MKRI8M — ClAIRVOTANCS, INNRR TiSlON, OR TraS 

pp. 63— 

Perception and seeing — Natural vision has a psychological basil 
Luddity has the same sensorium and basis ; but the light, or its a 
logue, is from within — Powers of luddity and dairroyaoce — ^Atheist 
philosophy and rational Scriptural philosophy — Locke; St. Paul — Oi 
and degree in nature — Necessity of observing these distinctions — Psy( 
or animus — Psycheism, the sdence of the soul — Psychological cha 
induced by mesmerism — ^Influence of operator on subject — Mental 
mospheres — ^Psychological cause for the observed physiological effec 
Internal and external memory — Superior state, or extasis — Man 11 
both in the spiritual and natural world at the same time — Defioitioi 
a true clairvoyant — Psychological explanation of distant ciairvoyano 
Cerebral lucidity — ^Imagination — Condusion. 



Chapter V. — Particular Mesiuebic Experience.— Case of £. 

pp. 84— 

Account of " Emma" — Discovery of mesmeric capabilities — Etb 
sation — Insensibility to pain — Catalepsy — ^Pbreno- mesmerism — M 
netic attraction — Personal influence — Removal of teeth while n 
merised — Discovery of the faculty of lucidity — Experiments — Grad 
development of state — Causes of occasional failure — Phraseology 
manners in the mesmeric state — Discovery of distant ciairvoyano 
Fatigue aod mental excitement attending it—Second inversion of stat 
Discovery of the mode of communication when away — Curious exp 
meats with cats. 



Chapter VI. — Successful Clairvoyant Experiments 

pp. 112 — 

Mr. Wood's case, loss of ca3h-<box and contents, discovery of 
thief, and restoration of the property — Mr. Arrowsmith's case, reco\ 
of £650, mislaid in the Bank of Bolton — Case of farmer from Yo 
shire, recovery of £40 — Other cases of lost property — Reasons for ( 
continuing such inquiries — First case of distant patient — Descriptioi 
persons in different parts of the globe — Case of young man in Amei 



CONTENTS. VU 

— ^Interesting case of Mr. Willey, description of him, and his pursuits, 
in California ; original notes of the case^ and subsequent verification^ — 
Discoveries of missing registers — Brief general account of the inquiry 
relative to Sir John Franklin — Case of personal descriptions of some of 
the officers—Position assigned to Franklin — All yet should be considered 
as conjecture. 



Chaptbr VIT. — Clairvoyance, as applied to Physiology and 
Mbdicinb pp. 152 — 164 

Use of dairvoyimce in physiology and medicine — Emma's first notice 
of the interior of the human body — Remarkable case of a lady in Man- 
chester, cure of cerebral disease — Recommendation of homeopathic 
medicines — Description of Mr. Turner's shop in Manchester, from the 
bust of Hahneman in the window — Method of testing medicines through 
the bottles — Remarks on homeopathic remedies — ^Use of the drugs and 
preparations of the pbarmacopseia — Reasons why numerous cases not 
published — Cure of blindness in a child — Cure of epilepsy — Method of 
conducting medical enquiries, by the aid of clairvoyance — Use, and en- 
deavour to avoid abuse, of clairvoyance as applied to medicine. 



Chapter VIIJ. — Clairvoyant Experiments in Electro -Che- 
mistry AND Magnetism . . • pp* 166 — 179 

Results of reading Dr. Mayho*s book — Reichenbach*s discoveries — 
Experiments with Emma in magnetism — ^The effect of metals on the 
living force — Direction of the magnetic current — Influence of sunlight 
on metals- — Actual inflammation produced by the contact of a wire, 
while experimenting — Chemical experiments — Sensitive experiments — 
Conscious lucidity, verification of mesmeric statements. 



Chapter IX. — ^Extasis or Trance . . -pp. 180 — 203 

Ancients acquainted with such a state-— What is meant by extasis — 
Emma's gradual approach to the extatic condition — First spontaneous 
extasis — Other states of extasis — General statement of Emma^s re- 
vealments — ^Trances in July, 1848 — Emma repeatedly selects the same 
passage of Scripture by mesmeric touch and vision although unable to 
read it — ^The assigned mode by which she was guided in this action-— 
Mentions facts only known to author and a deceased party — ^Trance, 
July 14th, 1848, similar to St. Peter's vision — Trance, September 
28th, 1848 — ^Description of it, and notes of Emma's statements — 
Education of children in the spirit-world — Conjugal union — Vision of 
sepulchre with attendant angels, brilliant light, significative of the 
resurrection of Jesus — Case of stiU-born children — Questioned in phy- 
siology — Emma describes things unknown to herself and the author, 
from communication with the spirit of a deceased gentleman — Investi- 
gation of a mysterious murder ; Emma uoravels the transaction ; the 
facts, as known, confirm her statements — Law of spiritual communi- 
cation — Conclusion. 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Chaptbr X.—Practicb and Use of Vital Maonetism, or M 

MBRISM . . . . . . . pp. 204 2 

Direct use as a curative agent — Method of magnetizing patients 
Mesmeric passes — How to combine the odylic influence, and terrestn 
magnetism, with mesmerism — how to act with patients labouring undt 
nervous, or painful diseases — Diseases in which mesmerism is nsefdl- 
Old and new medical treatment — Practice of mesmerism ought to ir 
under medical direction — Suggestion of distinctive terms, psycbeisft 
and parapsycheism. 



Appendix. 

Illustrations of the activity of the internal memory . . p. 21! 

A singular dream, illustrative of the laws of mental association 21<i 

Dr. Vaughan on miracles, ^c. . . . . . . 219 

Confirmation of the theory of sleep, from Baron Reichenbach • 230 

Development of new states in Emma . . , . . 226 
Mr. Atkinson and Miss Martineau on the " Laws of Man's 

Nature and Development" 230 



List of Engravings. 

No. I. — A diagram of a section of the brain divided nearly longitudi- 
nally, illustrative of the arrangement and distribution of the fibres. 

No. 2. — ^The base of the brain, the arachnoid membrane, the arteries and 
veins removed, shewing the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, and the 
principal nerves. 

No. 3. — FVont view of a pair of spinal nerves, shewing the anterior and 
posterior roots. 

No. 4. — A portion of the brain dissected, shewing a number of motor fibres 
descending from one of the hemispheres of the cerebrum, passing 
under the arch of the optic nerves, and through the pons varolii, and 
converging to form the anterior column of the spinal marrow. 

No. 5. — A diagram illustrating the sympathetic and pneumogastric sys- 
tems of nerves. 

No. 6. — ^The principal arteries of the brain removed from their situation, 
and represented on a plane surface, in order to shew their communi- 
cations, called the circle of Willis. The arrows shew the course of 
the blood. 

^0. 7. — A diagram representing the venous channels, called sinuses, in 
the upper and back part of the head, by which the blood is conveyed 
away from the brain. 

No. 8. — A section of the globe of the eye, cut through the middle from 
front to back, shewing the chambers. 



PREFACE. 



In the advertisement to the First Edition of this work, it 

was stated, that it contained the substance of Two Lectures, 

delivered in the early part of 1848, before large audiences, 

in the Temperance Hall, Bolton, under the auspices of 

the Mechanic's Institution of that town. To the body of 

the work was added an Appendix, containing a narrative 

of facts, embodying interesting mesmeric information, and 

which was partly intended as a reply to the inquiries of 

many respectable persons in Lancashire, and elsewhere, 

as to how, and when, the writer discovered the peculiar 

susceptibilities of his chief mesmeric subject. When 

written, it was chiefly intended for local circulation, and 

was thus rendered as brief and condensed as possible. 

But it has obtaiBed a wider xange than was anticipated 

by its Author ; and has been republished in New York, 

with the addition of wood engravings of the brain and 

nervous system ; and a larger edition than was originally 

contemplated, has been sold within two years. The work 

has been also favourably noticed, both in England and 

America, and the writer has received from professional 

gentlemen, entirely strangers to him, very flattering opinions 

and encomiums. 

Under these circumstances, the public is presented with 
a second, and greatly enlarged edition, containing much 
entirely new matter, and the original part re-modelled, 
and, in part, re-written, so as to place the whole subject 
in a clearer Hght, and easier to be understood : and, in 
furtherance of this object, several engravings have been 



X FBBFACB. 

introduoed, to illuBtrate the physiological portion. Kdov 
ing the distaste generally felt to lengthened discussic 
on the abstmse subject of psychology, the writer hi 
scarcely ventured to exceed the original limits assigns 
to that portion of the work ; but he has chiefly enlarge 
the chapter on the physiology and phenomena of mesme^ 
ism, and introduced a greater variety of notes of mesmerj 
and psychical experience, which the reader can explain h 
any theory or suggestion of his own, if dissatisfied wit 
the Author's. There are many gentlemen, of high pre 
fessional attainments, who are satisfied of the certaint 
of the main facts of mesmerism, but consider that th 
time is not yet ripe for theory. To such, and, indeed, t 
all his readers, he would say, that he is chiefly desirou 
that his work should be considered as a truthful narrativi 
of facts, which may confidently be relied on. Of course 
the Author considers his theory the best, or he wouk 
not have proposed it ; but he is wedded to no dogmas 
and he will willingly relinquish it, whenever he is pre 
sented with a better, which will meet the whole case. 

It was also stated, in the former edition, that an attempi 
had been made to explain the phenomena of mesmerisn 
in harmony with science and revelation. With all due 
respect for the opinions of those who have taken an oppo< 
site view, and after mature re-consideration, the writer feels 
that he has adopted the right course, and he is constrained 
to say, that, to him, the philosophy of Christianity appears 
to offer the easiest and most rational solution of the highei 
mesmeric phenomena, especially as regards the state oi 
extasis, or trance ; and that the narratives of the New 
Testament, and the facts of mesmerism, are mutually 
explanatory and corroborative of each other. He also 
considers, that the progress of sound mesmeric knowledge 
and the benefits that might accrue from it^ have been 
greatly retarded, and the interests of truth seriously in- 
jured, by the atheistic and materialistic views of some 



PREFACE. XI 

irkfluential mesmeric writers, and the attempts of others, 
1:0 upset the received truths of physical science. And 
Ixis regret on this account, he knows, is shared bj scien- 
-tific and professional gentlemen, well able to form a sound 
opinion. 

The American publisher changed the title to "Psy- 
ctiology; or, the Science of the Soul." The original lead- 
ixig title is, however, retained, as identifying the present 
ipvith the former edition : besides, the term, psychology, 
does not generally convey the idea, or meaning, in which 
tlie author has used the term Fsycheism. But such 
addition is made to the original title, as, it is presumed, 
^v^ill sufficiently characterize the work. 

Should this edition be as favourably received as the 
former, it is the Author's intention to follow it speedily by 
another work, in which he will enter more fully into the 
physiology of the brain, and the uses of some parts of 
the encephalon, deduced from researches that he is now 
making ; and, also, more extended observations and ex- 
periments on the imponderable elements, in their re- 
lations to the laws of nervation, with such further illus- 
trations of vital magnetism and psycheism, as increasing 
experience furnishes. 

Wood Street, Bolton ; 
Apra, 1851. 



PottaeripL — In Professor Gregory's recently published << Letters on 
Animal Magnetism," the reader will find several additional cases of snc- 
cessftil dairyoyance, tending to confirm the narratives of this work ; bnt 
which the writer omitted to record, partly to avoid increase of bulk, and 
partly because he considered them in the light of private experiments, 
tilie records of the whole of which wonld have occupied all the following 
pages. 



Dr, HADDOCK may he consulted personality < 
by letter, in all Medical cases. The terms and condiHot 
of inquiry, where patients are desirous that the Jaculi 
of Clairvoyance should be used as an aid in discoverin 
the cause and nature of their complaints, may be hat 
on application at his residence in Bolton, or by sendin 
a stamped directed envelope; and he is now making at 
rangements for a stated attendance in Manchester, vnt 
a inew to the ultimate establishment of a Sanatri^ 
Institution. 



SOMNOLISM AND PSYCHEISM. 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTION. 



One of the most striking characteristics of the pre* 
sent age, consists in the vast amount of knowledge 
respecting external objects^ which has been accumu- 
lated in a comparatively short period. For within 
the brief compass of human life, so extensive has 
been the discovery of the physical properties of na- 
tural substances, that chemistry, although of ancient 
date, may be considered as a new science. G-eoloj^, 
with its marvellous revealments, has opened a new 
world to human enquiry; and, by the strict rules of 
scientific induction, has led its votaries back to the 
infancy of our globe, and traced the wondrous revo- 
lutions by which the Almighty Creator fitted it to be 
the natural abode of man : and reason has led the 
human mind, with sure and certain step, into regions 
where even imagination dares not follow. While 
man has thus been permitted to increase his know- 
ledge of the world mthout him, we might reasonably 
expect, that some additional knowledge would be ac- 
quired of the world tvithin him. That his knowledge 
would not be confined to the superstitions of the dark 
ages, or to the assumptions of self-constituted au- 
thority on the one hand, nor to the barren negations 
of a sceptical philosophy on the other hand. But 
that something real, positive, and satisfactory, should 
be learnt, respecting his own constitution, and its re- 
lation to things unseen^ as weU as seen. For what 

1 



2 SOMNOLISM AND FBYCflEISM. 

^ knowledge can be so interesting to man, as a knor* 
* ledge of himself? — of the nature, powers, and CB,p\ 
bilities of his own being. 

To the calm, contemplatiTe, and well-informed ii- 
qmrer, who has patiently investigated for himself, « 
dispassionately considered the investigation of otIieR. 
it will, I think, be evident, that the remarkable phe- 
nomena displayed in the higher stages of what is 
caUed vital magnetism, or mesmerism,— or, as it u 
considered, for reasons hereafter to be given, wonld 
more properly be called Psycheism, — rightly inter- 
preted, — do afford ns the means of acquiring a know- 
ledge of the laws and nature of the psychical or mental 
part of our being, as much transcending what is coin- 
monly known and believed, as the recent discoveries 
in magnetism and electricity, exceed the ancient ideas 
of these- natural powers ; and at the same time they 
afford us the means of becoming acquainted with the 
more abstruse points in our bodily organization also. 

The discoveries and doctrines of an enhghtened 
physiology teach us, that all the elements, forms, and 
forces of the entire universe, are found, in their high- 
est perfection, in the bodily form of man ; and that 
in him, as the microcosm, or little world, is to be 
found all that exists in the macrocosm, or great world 
of the universe. And, as in the great world with- 
out us, the most astonishing and transforming powers 
are displayed by those subtile, imponderable, and in- 
visible elements, which elude the most acute physical 
senses, even when aided by the highest artificial 
means; so in the world witlun us, the most wonder- 
ful and unexpected powers are manifested by those 
psychical or mental operations, by which the lavs 
and developments of the world of mind, are capable 
of being openly displayed before our physical sight. 

But the curious and interesting phenomena dis- 
played by vital magnetism, or mesmerism, instead of 
being cahnly and carefully investigated by all inquir- 
ing minds, especially by those whose profession and 
pursuits ought to have interested them in the inquiry; 



INTRODUCTION. 8 

aave^ in too many instances^ been scornfully and con- 
temptuously neglected. Authority^ instead of lending 
Its aid to elicit the truths has rather scowled upon 
the attempt which has been made to lift the veil un- 
der which truth has been concealed; and^ in some 
cases^ has misrepresented the character and inten- 
tions of those^ who, at any cost, were determined to 
seek her for themselves. Notwithstanding these dis- 
couragements, there have not been wanting able and 
fearless advocates in each of the branches of the 
learned professions, who have fully proclaimed the 
general truthfulness of mesmeric phenomena, and 
thus prevented a most important branch of human 
knowledge from being consigned, by authority, to the 
charlatan and the quack. 

It is possible indeed, that the very remarkable re- 
sults said to flow from the enquiry j — results, so dif- 
ferent to the expectations and ideas of a materializing 
age, and in some respects, disclosing matters which 
seem to clash with established opinions, — may have 
been the reason for this unfair, and certainly unphilo- 
sophical mode of proceeding. But, granting that the 
most astounding statements made by mesmeric ex- 
perimenters are true, they are not, when properly 
considered, more wonderful than things now univer- 
sally admitted as facts. Look at the wonder-working 
electric telegraph ! The elements on which that in- 
vention rests, must be as old as the present order of 
things : yet if any one in the middle of the last cen- 
tury had ventured to assert, that, by human inge- 
nuity, electricity, or magnetism, could be made to 
transmit human thought with mathematical precision, 
and with the velocity of light ; — " that the sun could 
be made to paint our pictures, and the lightning to 
carry our messages ;^' — ^he would have been set down 
by the practical authorities of that age, as a dreaming 
theorist, or an enthusiastic visionary. To us, how- 
ever, the visionary theory has become a reality : and 
yet, what magnetism or electricity really are^ is no 
more known to us, than it was to our great grand- 

1* 



4 SOMNOU8M AND P8TCHEI8M, 

fathers. The trath is^ the mode has been elicited V 
which certain comparatively unknown mediums^ jm] 
be practically applied to subserve the purposes of so- 
cial life : and herein, and for all practical purposes 
consists the tisefiU discovery. If we may never knof 
what magnetism and electricity in themselves realh 
are, we certainly do know much of the mode by 
which their laws and powers may be developed and 
manifested : — we have discovered a mode of working 
certain imponderable mediums, altogether unknom 
to our ancestors. 

Just so, I apprehend, it is with the discoveries as- 
sociated with the names of vital magnetism or mes- 
merism. Here is in fact a discovery of a new mode 
of working and manifesting the powers of an old me* 
dium. That mind and matter are both necessary to 
form the peculiar organism we call man, is no new 
doctrine: but the true nature of the body, as the 
mind's medium or instrument, and of the necessary 
organization of that superior in-dwelling power, — ^the 
soul or mind, which directs and controls the outward 
form, has been somewhat overlooked. Metaphysi- 
cians have studied mind irrespective of form or mat- 
ter; — some philosophers would resolve all things into 
material operation, irrespective of mind. I believe 
that fact, and demonstrative evidence, wiU prove that 
both classes of philosophers are wrong. From Divine 
Revelation we know that there is both ^' a spiritual 
body and a natural body,'' — both a spiritual organi- 
zation and a natural organization. These cardinal 
truths will be found to lie at the bottom of all the 
higher stages of mesmeric experience ; and from that 
experience it is conceived, that the a priori state- 
ments of the Scriptures will receive abundant confir- 
mation: we shall see that in our present state of 
existence, if we wi^h to study mind or spirit, we must 
study it as manifested in its divinely appointed and 
true correspondent instrument, — ^the bodily organi- 
zation. 

With some of the mind's operations, and the bodily 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

Eiinctions and sensations thence ensuing^ we have be- 
come so familiar^ that we scarcely ever stop to think 
of t;lie perpetual miracles involved in our daily expe- 
Thus the great blessing of sight, involves, as 
shall point out farther on, a fact which all the 
pliilosophers that have ever lived have been unable to 
esiplain ! Tet, when some manifestation of mind or 
spirit, which has hitherto eluded general notice, is 
Ijirought before us, although it may not be more inex* 
plicable than natural sight, we are apt to deny the 
possibility of the declared manifestation, simply be- 
oa.Tise we were not previously acquainted with it : — 
apt to make our present standard of knowledge the 
measure by which all fiiture acquisitions are to be es- 
tijxiated. Sometimes too, we are told authoritatively, 
that it is impossible for us to know anything of mind 
or spirit. What, it may be asked, do we know of 
matter? Simply some of its laws ojid properties, and 
firom these we predicate its qualities. So it is with 
mind or spirit ! Mesmerism, or more truly psyche- 
ism, furnishes us with a means of acquiring an experi- 
xnental acquaintance with some of its most distinctive 
qualities ;— distinctive it is meant, with respect to the 
qualities of inert matter. Whether we shall ever know 
the essential nature of either spirit or matter, remains 
for a higher stage of existence to determine. It is 
privilege enough to be enabled to know something of 
the laws and properties of that higher and imperish- 
able organism, to which our outward bodily organism 
is subservient. 



CHAPTER II. 

OBIOIN AND FROOBI88 OF VITAL MAONBTI8M OK MBSMERISl 

In the records of past ages^ we have many stateme 
of remarkable mental or psychical manifestations^ a 
also of the performance of remarkable cnres^ by m( 
tal or moral agency^ which ignorance and superstiti 
have ascribed to miracle or magic; and scepticism^ 
collusion and deception. The more extended knd 
ledge^ and joster philosophy which is progressing 
the present generation, has admitted the possibil 
and probability of many things which were ridicu] 
in the middle of the eighteenth century: some 
these, as the fall of large masses of iron, — meteorite 
as they are termed, — from the atmosphere, are m 
admitted as established yerities; and the more rece 
observation of what is called mesmeric phenomex 
has gone far to establish the veracity of ancie 
writers on other disputed matters, and to afford 
reasonable explanation of otherwise mysterious, aj 
apparently impossible, events. 

Ancient history speaks of the mysterious doing 
oracular sayings, prophetic forebodings, and app 
rently miraculous performances of the Egyptij 
Priests ,* of the Delphian Oracle among the Greek 
and of the Sybils among the Romans. From what 
known of the practices, the long vigils and fasting 
and the peculiar attitudes and manners of the Sybil 
there can be little doubt, that by various means, ke] 
secret from the multitude, a condition similar, if ni 
identical with the higher mesmeric, or psychic stat 
as it is proposed to call it, was induced ; and that tl 
Sybils and utterers of oracles, were, at times, real! 
clairvoyant, and in a state of trance. Saint Justi 
says, " that the Sybils spoke many great things wit 
justice and with truth, and that when the institu 



OBIGIN 'AND FBOOBESS. 7 

taJtich animated them ceased to exist, they lost the 
recollection of all they had declared"^ It will be seen 
irt i^lie sequel^ that this is so strikingly in accordance 
-^^ritli the mesmeric sleep or trance^ as to leave scarcely 
SL donbt of its identity with it. That the Sybils were 
sometimes possessed of sup^-sensnal or prophetic 
peirceptioDs/is an opinion commonly entertained^ as 
is evident from the well-known hymn of the Roman 
Oa.tholic church, which commences, — 

Dies irsB, dies ilia 
Solvet steclum in favilla, 
Teste David cum Sybilla, 

Tlius anglicised in a number of the " Congregational 
^Magazine,'' — 

The day of wrath, that dreadful day, 
When heaven and earth shall pass away, 
As David and the Sybils say. 

The soothing application of what are now called 
passes, was evidently known at a very remote period ; 
for there is a curious passage in the works of Celsus, 
tlie Roman physician, in which he states that the old 

Greek father of physic, Asclepiades, practised light 
yriction, as a means of inducing sleep in phrensy and 

insanity ; and, what is more remarkable, he says, that 

by too much friction there was danger of inducing 

lethargy,'^ 

* Justin. Adm. ad Gnecos, quoted by Teste. 

"^ These passages are so curious, that, for the medical or classical 
reader, I transcribe the sentences. In allusion to blood-letting, he says : 
** Asclepiades perinde esse dixit, his sanguinem mitti, ac si trucidenter ; 
rationem banc secutus, quod neque insania esset, nisi febre intenta : neque 
sanguis, nisi in remissione ejus, recte mitteretur. 8ed ipse in Ms iomnum 
muUa frictione qtuetimt,** Again : in representing Asclepiades as caution- 
ing bis disciples against the use of narcotics in maniacal cases, from the 
danger which might ensue, he says: ^'Pnedpit autem, ut primo die, a 
cibo, potione, somno abstineretur ; vespere ei daretur potui aqua; turn 
/rieiio admovereiitr lenis, ut ne manum quidem, qui perfricaret, vdiementer 
imprimeret : postero deinde die, iisdem omnibus factis, vespere ei daretur 
•orUtio et aqua, rurmquefrietio adhiberetur : per banc enim nos consecu- 
turos, ui somnuM aecedat. Id interdum fit, et quidem adeo, ut, illo con* 
fiiente, utmia frictio etiam lethargi perieulum t^eratJ* De Medicina. 
lib. iii. I snl^oin a translation of the second sentence : "But he ordered, 
that the patient should be made to abstain on the first day from food. 



8 tOMNOI^lIM AND P8TCHSI8M. 

Bat as it is not proposed to introduce anything I 
a history of ancient or middle*aged mystery, we m^ 
tion only one authentic case prior to the discovei 
of Mesmer. In the reign of Charles IL, a gentlem 
of the name of Valentine Ghreatarick, or (£reatra]i 
acquired considerable Notoriety from, curing disea 
by stroking with his hands. These cures were authi 
ticated by the Bishop of Derry, and many other i 
spectable individuals. The Royal Society is said 
have accounted for them, by the supposition tl 
there existed '^ a sanative influence in Mr. Ghreatrak 
body, which had an antipathy to some particular d 
eases, and not to others.^' There is an article in t 
'' London Medical Gaaette*' for October 12th, 18^ 
entitled, *^ The Practice of Mesmerism for the cure 
Diseases in the seventeenth century,^^ which, althouj 
intended as a sneer at mesmerism generaUy, and abu 
of such professional gentlemen as have had the ma 
liness to avow their beUef in the efficacy of mesmei 
treatment, contains the following curious particulai 
^^ In the library at Maldon, there is a curious o 
book, entitled, ^The Miraculous Conformist; or, \ 
account of several marvellous cubes, performed by tl 
stroaking of the hands, by Valentine Gbeatakic 
with a physical discourse thereupon, in a letter to t] 
Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq. With a Letter S 
lating some other of his miraculous cures attested I 
E. Foxcrofk, Esq., M.A., and Fellow of King's Cc 
lege, in Cambr., by Henry Stubbs, Physician, 
Stratford -upon- Avon, in the county of Warwic 
Oxford: Printed by H. Hall, Printer to the Unive 
sity for Ric: Davis, 1666.' '' At page 88th is the ft 
lowing : — ^' The Account of a Lepbosy cured by M 
Greatarick in the presence of the Lobd Conway. 

drink, and sleep ; that in the evening, water should he given him J 
drink ; then that gentle friction should be applied, so that he who was m 
bing, did not even press the part strongly : then, on the next day, i 
same things should be repeated, ai\d gruel and water given in the ev« 
ing, and friction again applied ; for the effect would be to induce slo 
It would sometimes happen, as he confesses, that too much friction pi 
duoed a danger of lethargy." 



OBIOIN AND PROGRESS. 9 

boy about fourteen years old^ sonne to a Prebend of 
Gloucester, recommended to the Lord Conway by the 
Bisliop of Gloucester, came with a letter to Ragley : 
lie ^was afflicted with a Leprosy judged incurable ; and 
liad been so tenne years. At his coming to my Lord's 
lie found Mr. Greatarick touching people in the field: 
inrliereupon he pressed upon, and got him to stroke 
Ids body all over : this happened upon Wednesday : 
on FHday morning the boy came to my Lord and de- 
livered his letter : whereupon my Lord sent for him 
up to his chamber, and causing him to be stripped, 
they found that the moist salt and brinish humour 
wliich caused a moist leprosy, was dried up, and in 
some places scaled off, the skinne under it was red 
(as under all crusts fsJlen off) there was no itching 
or pricking at all nor heat : with which symptoms he. 
liad formerly been troubled. Mr. Greatarick stroked 
him again, and rubbed his body aU oyer with spittle. 
My Lord ordered his boy to return if he were not 
cured, but he came no more.^' At the present day it 
is plain enough that GreataricVs ^' stroakings,^^ were 
similar in practice, and identical in effect, with mes- 
meric passes; and he appears to have been one of 
those individuals, whose moral and physical constitu- 
tion was peculiarly fitted for the transmission of a 
healing agency. 

Another case of success in treating some classes of 
disease, which appears to have arisen directly from 
Mesmer's discovery, and to have been, in fact, a 
modification of his treatment, occurred in the early 
part of the Reign of George III. One Perkins, had 
invented some sort of metallic tractors, by which, as 
he supposed, in accordance with the theory then pre- 
vailing, animal magnetism was conveyed to the pa- 
tient^s body. He obtained a patent for this instrument, 
and its supposed virtues are set forth in a work, en- 
titled, ''The efficacy of Perkins' Patent Metallic 
Tractors in various diseases of the human body and 
animals; exemplified by two hundred and fifty cases 

from the first literary characters in Europe and Ame- 

1** 



\ 

V 



/ 



10 SOMNOLISM AND F8TCHEISM. 

rica. With a Preliminary Discourse in Refutation 
the Objections made by Interest and Prejudice to tb 
Metallic Practice/' The £Dllowing quotation from ih 
article " Animal Magnetism/' in the " Penny Cydo- 
poedia/' is quite characteristic of what medical science 
will sometimes do in such cases. " Dr. Williaxa Fal- 
coner^ of Bath^ haying made tractors of wood so 
exactly resembling the patent tractors^ that it iru 
impossible for the eye to distinguish between the one 
and the other, tried, in conjunction with Dr. Hay- 
garth, the effect of these fictitious tractors on a large 
scale, on patients in the Bath hospital, and produced 
precisely the same effects with the fictitious as witl 
the genuine, affording a demonstration that whatever 
effects were produced, were produced solely by the 
imagination. The publication of these cases put an 
end to the virtues of the metallic tractors in England.^' 
Thus, these gentlemen found, that by traction witii 
similar instruments in appearance to Perkinses, but 
made of a different material, they could produce the 
same remedial results ; this certainly proved that the 
virtue, whatever it was, did not reside in the material 
of which the instrument was made: what it really 
was that produced the effect, whether by a change in 
the electric, or still more subtle elements of the body, 
they did not stop to enquire ; the evident use was 
altogether disregarded; and the interests of humanity 
were sacrificed at the proud shrine of science. It is 
not meant to offer any opinion on the nature of 
Perkins's tractors ; but in the sequel it will be seen 
that there is some powerful affinity between the subtile 
elements of the body and metallic substances, and the 
wooden tractors must have been coated with some 
metallic substance, in order to present the appearance 
of the genuine ones ; and hence, perhaps, the doctors 
may have been unconsciously following Perkins's 
practice. 

Frederick Anthony Mesmer, who was bom, ac- 
cording to one authority, in 1734, at Weiler, near 
Stein on the Rhine, according to another account, at 



ORIGIN AND PROGRESS. 11 

IMCersbarg, on the Shores of the Lake of Constance^ is 
generally considered as the discoverer^ in modem 
times^ of the agency associated with his name. This 
iixdividual has been represented in works of authority 
a^ an impostor and a cheats and as owing his celebrity 
entixely to the silly credulity of imaginative people. 
l^G^v" persons who have really taken the trouble to 
enquire into the matter^ would now hazard such an 
assertion : yet^ whether from ignorance of the true 
ea>ixse of the phenomena he witnessed^ or from a de- 
sire to mystify the subject^ it must be admitted that 
lie both did and said many things which justified 
sixspicion. 

Mesmer appears to have been a man of an imagin- 
ative cast of mind^ for the Inaugural Thesis he pub- 
lished on obtaining his degree^ was " On the influence 
of the Planets on the Human Body.^' Such a mind, 
if likely to fall into many errors, was still open for the 
reception of any new ideas which might present them- 
selves j and was not so prone as men of a more scep- 
tical cast, to reject any new truth because it did not 
liarmonize with preconceived opinions. He thought 
this planetary influence operated by electricity; but 
finding that element inadequate to the solution, he 
subsequently abandoned it for magnetism. To this 
he was led in the following manner. The then pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Vienna, a Jesuit, named Max- 
imilian Hehl, was a believer in the efficacy of the 
loadstone as a remedy in human diseases. Mesmer, 
who at the age of forty-two, had just graduated as a 
doctor of medicine in the university, became ac- 
quainted with the Professor, and from him obtained 
the secret of a peculiar form of magnetic steel plates, 
which, it is said, had been applied to the cure of dis- 
ease with much success. Mesmer applied these in 
his own way, and, it is reported, with such striking 
results, that it awakened the jealousy of the Astro- 
nomer, who published an account of them, but attri- 
buted the cures performed to the form of the plates, 
and merely represented Mesmer as a physician em- 



12 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHSISM. 

ployed hj him to Use them. Mesmer, who had dii* 
covered the peculiar mode of using them to insuc 
curatiye resolts; — ^that is, in fact, by mafdpnlations, 
now called Passes,— »wa8 indignant at this, and ac- 
cused his Mend of a violation of the confidence placed 
in him. The result was a controversy between the 
parties, each accusing the other. Mesmer went on 
curing in his own way, and whether from indiscre- 
tion on his own part, or jealousy on the part of others, 
he was opposed by the scientific authorities of Vienna, 
and was ultimately obliged to quit that city. 

In the year 1778, two years after obtaining his de- 
gree, he arrived at Paris, whither his populariiy ap- 
pears to have preceded him ; for we are told, even by 
his enemies, that upon his opening in that gay me- 
tropolis, public apartments for the reception of pati- 
ents, they were speedily crowded by the numbers who 
daily resorted to them, including bH classes, firom the 
peer to the peasant ; and that hundreds were ready 
to testify to the cures wrought upon their own per- 
sons by the great magnetizer. Now making every 
allowance for imagination or fancy, striking results 
must have followed his treatment, or no such enthu- 
siasm could have been raised in his behalf. A French 
physician. Dr. d'Eslon, became a disciple of Mesmer^ 
and is said to have speedily acquired a more profit- 
able practice than his master. So great in fact, was 
the interest in Mesmer's proceedings, that the French 
government took up the matter, and offered him a 
large annual income if he would communicate his se- 
cret, and they appear to have thought so highly of the 
us£ to which this new agent might be applied, that 
they actually proposed to guarantee him a large sum^ 
even if a commission appointed to examine the^ sub- 
ject, should make an unfavourable report ! Mesmer, 
however, for some reasons, did not accede to the 
government proposal. The secrecy and mystery he 
seems to have adopted, may have been deemed neces- 
sary to ensure a due remuneration for his discovery ; 
but for the sake of his reputation, and the credit of 



0BI6IN AND F&OGKX88.. 13 

t;lfe.e practice itself^ it is to be regretted that Mesmer 

slmoold have pursued such a course. After some time 

axxd diyers vicissitudes^ the sum of ^614^000 was raised 

\yy his disciples, whom he had instructed in his art, 

\ycLt whom he did not consider entitled to practise it 

pxiblicly j— a right which they considered themselves 

"to possess. This led to altercation, and ultimately 

I^esmer left Paris, and returned to his native place. 

nTllis has been represented as '^ running away from 

Ills dupes ;'^ but it appears that he retained mith in 

Ilia views, and in his last illness sought relief from his 

own discovery. He died at Mersburg in L815, at the 

advanced age of eighty-one. 

As Mesmer's diiscoveries arose out of the use of 
xnagnets, it is not surprising that he should consider 
3 sort of magnetism, as the agent by which the effects 
lie witnessed were produced, this he called animal 
magnetism; and such is the revolution which time 
and research effects in public opinion, that this doc- 
trine, which was the greatest stumbling block to the 
savans of Mesmer's time, and led to his system being 
rejected as mere pretence and imposition, is now, 
under another name, beginning to be received as a 
very probable fact, by many eminent scientific au- 
thorities. 

Mesmer's theory is as follows. '^ Animal magnet- 
ism is a fluid universally diffused : it is the medium 
of a mutual influence between the heavenly bodies, 
the earth, and animated bodies ; it is continuous, so 
as to leave no void ; its subtilty admits of no com- 
parison ; it is capable of receiving, propagating, com- 
municating all the impressions of motion; it is sus- 
ceptible of flux and reflux. The animal body experi- 
ences the effects of this agent : by insinuating itself I 
into the substance of the nerves, it affects them im- 
mediately. There are observed, particularly in the'^ 
human body, properties analagous to those of the 
magnet, and in it are discerned poles, equally differ- 
ent and opposite. The action and the virtues of ani- 
mal magnetism may be communicated from one body 



\ 



14 SOMNOU8M AND P8TCHXI81f. 

to other bodies, animate and inanimate. This actioo 
takes place at a remote distance without the aid oi 
any intermediate body ; it is increased, reflected by 
mirrors ; communicated, augmented, and propagated 
by sound ; its virtues may be accumulated, concen- 
trated, transported. Although this fluid is universal; 
all animal bodies are not equally susceptible of it; 
there are even some, though a very sniall number, 
which have properties so opposite, that their venr 
presence destroys all the effects of this fluid on other 
bodies. Animal magnetism is capable of healing dis- 
eases of the nerves immediately, and others mediate- 
ly. It perfects the action of medicines; it excites 
and directs salutary crises in such a manner, that the 
physician may render himself master of them ; by its 
means he knows the state of the health of each indi- 
vidual, and judges with certainty of the origin^ the 
nature, and the progress of the most compUcated 
diseases: he prevents their increase, and succeeds 
in healing them, without at any time exposing his 
patient to dangerous effects or troublesome conse- 
quences. In animal magnetism nature presents a 
universal method of healing and preserving man- 
kind.'^* How far Mesmer's theory had a foundation 
in truth, the reader will be better able to«judge after 
perusing the following pages. But it appears plain, 
that the great end of all his proceedings, or at all 
events the ostensible end, was use, — ^the application 
of a remedy for human suffering. In this we cannot 
but respect him, however he may have erred in other 
matters. Besides, his discovery and practice led the 
way to the observation of other, and more distinctly 
psychical phenomena, such as artificial somnambulism 
and clairvoyance. 

These phenomena appear to have been first ob- 
served in modem times by the Marquis de Puysegur, 
a French nobleman, of the ancien regime, and one 
of Mesmer's disciples. In a letter, dated March 8th, 



* M^moire sur la D^converte da Magoetisme Animali par M. Mesmer. 
Paris, 1779. — Quoted in <* Peony Cjclopcedia.' 



>i 



OKIOIN AND PROGRESS* 15 

1.784, written from his estate at Busancy, to a mem- 
"ber of the Society de rHarmonie, he says, " after ten 
days' rest at my estate, without attending to anything 
l>iit my -repose and my gardens, I had occasion to 
enter the house of my steward. His daughter was 
suffering from a violent toothache. I asked her in 
Jest if she wished to be cured? she, of course, con- 
sented. I had not been ten minutes magnetizing 
lier, when her pain was completely gone, and she felt 
xio return of it after. Another woman was cured on 
i;lie following day of the same afiPection, and in as 
short a time. 

^' This slight success made me try to do some good 
for a peasant, about twenty-three years of age, who 
liad been keeping his bed for four days, in conse- 
quence of inflammation on his chest, I went to see 
him : it was last Tuesday, the fourth of this month, 
at eight o'clock in the evening; the fever had just 
become Hghter. I made him get out of bed and 
magnetized him. What was my surprise to see at 
the end of half a quarter of an hour, this person /a// 
into a tranquil sleep in my arms, without pain or con- 
vulsion. I urged on the crisis, which caused him 
some giddiness in the head : he spoke aloud of his 
ordinary affairs. When I thought his ideas must 
affect hun disagreeably, I arrested them,'and began to 
inspire him with others of a more pleasant and lively 
turn. It required no great effort on my part to ac- 
compUsh this. Then I saw him quite happy, fancying 
that he was at a fete, I cherished these ideas in him, 
and thereby I forced him to move himself with con- 
siderable activity in his chair, as it were, to dance to 
an air which, by singiug mentally^ I made him repeat 
quite aloud.'' The Marquis then goes on to narrate 
the progress of his patient towards recovery ; but the 
foregoing extract is all that is of any interest now, 
and that, because it is the first recorded instance of 
the observance of somnambulism, in connection with 
mesmeric practice. 

MesmePs mode of applying the agency he deuo- 



16 80MNOLI8II AND P8TCHII8M. 

minated Animal Magnetism^ was as follows. In ik 
centre of the room^ where the patients assembled, 
was placed a sort of oaken tub, called by him the 
Magnetic Baquet. The interior was filled with 
pounded glass^ iron filings, and bottles containing 
magnetized water. The cover of the vessel was 
pierced with numerous holes, into which were intro- 
duced polished iron rods, bent nearly at right angles, 
and which were capable of being moved. The pa- 
tients were arranged in successive rows around this 
baquet, and each one held one of the iron rods, which 
he applied to the part of the body supposed to be the 
seat of the diseasie : a cord passed round their bodies^ 
uniting them to each other, and sometimes a second 
chain was formed by placing the thumb of one patient 
between the thumb and forefinger of the next patient, 
and so on round the circle; each patient pressing 
the thumb of his neighbour. A pianoforte was placed 
in a comer of the room, and according to the move- 
ments, different airs were played upon it; singing 
being sometimes added. The magnetizer himself, 
armed with a metallic rod, walked among the pa- 
tients, looking steadfastly at one ; pointing with his 
rod to the presumed seat of diserse of another; and 
occasionally applying pressure with the finger over 
the hypochondriacal and abdominal regions; and 
these various manipulations were assiduously con- 
tinued for a considerable time. The results on highly 
nervous, and especially imaginative subjects, may be 
readily conceived. Some were but little affected; 
others uttered sighs, and gave way to tears or laugh- 
ter; some were depressed; others excited and con- 
vulsed, and some passed into a state of langour and 
reverie. Some patients devoted their attention to 
elich other, rushing towards one another, speaking 
with affection, and mutually soothing each other, in 
these crises, as they were caUed, which were supposed 
to be necessary to effect a cure. All were under the 
control and power of the magnetizer. 

Such is a sketch of the report of the first commis- 



ORIGIN AND FROGRBSS. 17 

sion appointed by the French Government to investi- 
gate the subject. The commissioners, who^ with one 
exception^ appear to have been inimical to Mesmer 
and. his proceedings^ admits that by these combined 
means, cores were effected; but these they attributed 
entirely to the influence of the imagination; — ^the 
ready way of accounting for an influence not under- 
stood. They also reported that there were operations 
connected with the science, which might be turned to 
immoral purposes, and so recommended the suppres- 
sion of the entire system. They applied to the baquet 
tlie usual tests for terrestrial magnetism and electri- 
city ; they found no indication of these well-known 
elements, and so pronounced the whole to be decep- 
tion and the effect of fancy. Persons who have fully 
admitted the truth of mesmerism, have doubted whe- 
tlier any effect was produced by the baquet and its 
accompaniments; perhaps, justly so: but the re- 
searches of Beichenbach have shewn that there is 
another and more subtile element, than either mag- 
netism or electricity, and that this element is even 
visible to highly sensitive persons. 

The renewed interest in the pursuits of animal 
magnetism, led.to the issuing of another commission 
by the French Royal Academy in 1826, the report of 
which was not published till 1831, thus allowing suffi- 
cient time for investigation. This report fully ac- 
knowledges the truth of all the phenomena usually 
ascribed to animal magnetism, and with a few of the 
chief conclusions of this report, this slight historical 
sketch will close. The Report consists of thirty 
numbered paragraphs, exclusive of the concluding re- 
marks. No. 19, says, ^ We have not seen that a 
person magnetized for the first time fell into a state 
of somnambulism; sometimes it was not till the eighth 
or tenth sitting, that somnambulism declared itself. 
No. 24. — ^We have seen two somnambulists distin- 
guish with their eyes shut the objects placed before 
them; they have told without touching them^ the 
colour and value of the cards : they have read words 



18 SOHNOIiIBH AND FSYCHEISM. 

traced with their hand^ or some lines of books opened 
by mere chance. This phenomenon took place ere 
when the openings of the eyelids was accurately closec 
by means of the fingers. 25. — ^We met in two som- 
nambulists the power of foreseeing acts of the (s- 
ganism more or less distant^ more or less complicated 
One of them announced several days^ nay seven! 
months before hand^ the day^ the hour^ and the mi- 
nute^ when epileptic fits would come on and return: 
the other declared the time of the cure. Their pre- 
visions were realized with remarkable exactness. 
They seemed to us, to apply only to acts or lesions 
of their organism. 26. — We have met but one som- 
nambulist, who described the symptoms of the disease 
of three persons with whom she had been brought 
into contact. We instituted researches, however, on 
a considerable number. 28. — Some of the patient^ 
magnetized have felt no benefit; others have expe- 
rienced a relief more or less marked, viz., one, the 
suppression of habitual pains, the other, the return of 
strength ; a third, a retardation for several months Id 
the recurrence of epileptic attacks ; and a fourth, the 
complete cure of a severe paralysis of long standing. 
29. — Considered as an agent of physiological pheno- 
mena, or as a therapeutical means, magnetism must 
find its place in the circle of medical knowledge; and, 
consequently, medical men only should practise it, or 
watch and superintend its employment, as is done in 
the northern countries. 80. — ^The commission has 
not been able to verify, for the want of opportunity, 
other powers, which magnetizers have declared to 
exist in somnambulists; but it has collected and com- 
municated facts sufficiently important, to induce it to 
think that the Academy should encourage the re- 
searches on magnetism, as a very curious branch of 
psychology and natural history. 

" Signed. Boudois de la Motte, President. Pou- 
quier, Oueneau de Mussy, Guersart, Itard, J. J. 
Leroux, Marc, Thillage. Husson, Reporter."* 

* Dr. Spillan'a Traoilatioa of Teste. 



ORIGIN AND PROGRESS. 19 

(r It was soon discovered^ that the steel rods, had but 
cc little, if anything to do with the phenomena wit- 
: nessed : the name of animal magnetism, however, 
L continued to be used, and is stiU used on the Conti- 
i nent, and by this name the practice was introduced 
]: into England a few years ago. But the English en- 
> qnirers into this remarkable human faculty, finding 
I that the use of a namCj which implied the existence of 
a fluid which could not be demonstrated to the senses, 
; wa8 frequently turned into an argument against facts, 
; vrhich admitted of complete demonstration, adopted, 
out of respect to the memory of Mesmer, and to 
. avoid the appearance of the adoption of any theory of 
their own, the name of Mesmerism ; just as the term 
magnetism is applied to the properties of the load- 
stone, from Magnes, the ancient reputed discoverer of 
its powers ; or the term galvanism, to the discoveries 
of Gkdvani. We now proceed to notice the facts and 
phenomena associated with the names of mesmerism, 
or animal magnetism, and shall endeavour to ascertain 
the laws and causes to which these phenomena are to 
be referred. 



CHAPTER III. 

PHBKOMBNA AND PBTSIOLOGT OF YITAL MAOHITISM OK 



A YBRT slight practical acquaintance with the pheno- 
mena associated with the name of mbsmbrism, will 
be sufficient to manifest^ that although one commoii 
character of somnolency is always more or less ap- 
parent, still there are a variety of states, and widd} 
differing manifestations, included in one generic term. 
One person who is truly mesmerized as it iscalledj 
may evince only symptoms of slight drowsiness or in* 
ability to open the eyes; while another, with the 
same amount of manipulation, will display the highei 
faculties of lucidity or clairvoyance. It is necessary^ 
therefore, for a clear apprehension of the phenomena, 
to have some classification of the different states. 
Judging from my own experience, these states maj 
; be classified as follows. First, sihfle mbsmekic 
\ DROWSINESS or SLEEP ; sccoudly, COMA, or more pro- 
\ found sleep; thirdly, anjbsthesia, or insensibility to 
, pain, occasioned by general want of feeling. This 
last mentioned characteristic is a result of the full 
establishment of the mesmeric coma, and by this 
means, the entire closure of the external conscious- 
ness ; for a person may appear to be insensible to, or 
unconscious of outward objects, and yet upon receiv- 
ing a sudden prick or pinch, startle, or draw back the 
limb ; plainly shewing that sensibility is not entirely 
deadened. These three stages comprise all that are 
required to manifest the various phenomena, arising 
from the partial and entire closure of the outward 
consciousness. The next stages display the opening 
of an inner consciousness, which has given rise to the 
phrase of dovAle- consciousness, employed by some 
physiological writers. A subject may not progress 
further than the state of coma, but it will, I believe. 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 21 

xioBtly happen^ that when coma is really establishedA^^ 
bhe other states will follow. On the other hand, some ; 
sixbjects appear to possess the state of inner-con- (\ 
3€n.oasness, without passing properly into the state of ^ 
coma. Perhaps the first or lowest state of inner-con- 
sciousness, may be classified as phbeno-mesmerism, \ 
or the manifestation of the phrenological sentiments / 
a.xid feelings, which is but a form of simple imagina- /,. 
tive action. Next in order, is phantasy, or that state >! 
in Tfhich the mesmerized person takes the mere sug- I 
gestions of the operator to be realities. Transper )\ 
of STATE and peeling, or that imaginative and sym- , 
pathetic action, which causes the subject to feel what 
is done to the operator, as if it were done to himself, 
'which is in reality but another phrase of phantasy, 
but having a real base. Mental or vital magnetic ' 
ATTRACTION, by which the subject is irresistibly drawn, 
even contrary to Us inclination, towards the operator. 
And, lastly, the still higher faculties of cerebral lu* 
ciDiTY, or apparent illumination of the brain, by 
which objects are seen without the use of the eye ; \ 
together with those other forms of distant perception, i 
commonly known by the name of clairvoyance, or 
dear-seeing; aU which would perhaps, be better / 
classed as inner vision, or internal, or spiritual / 
SIGHT. These various phenomena exhibit a series of/j 
great and interesting facts, which cannot be set aside, 
neither by argument nor ridicule, whatever medieal 
or literary critics may affect to say to the contrary; 
and we now proceed to enquire, — How we are to un- 
derstand them ? In what way to account for these 
curious and interesting manifestations ? 

As all the voluntary actions of a man are the results 
of a mental operation caUed volition, and all conscious- 
ness, which is strictly human, requires the mind as 
its subject, it is necessary, at the outset of our in- 
quiry, that we examine the medium by which the mind 
acts on the material bodily organization, that is, the 
BRAIN and NERVOUS SYSTEM. FoT it is only in the 
degree that the forms and uses of the nervous system 



22 80MN0LIBM AND P8TCBBISM. 

are understood, and its correlation with the laws ol 
mind, and the laws regulating the elements of oa^ 
mundane system, that we can understand or compre^ 
hend the phenomena of vital magnetism. It is oom^ 
mon to speak of the nervous system as consisting d 
the brain, the spinal marrow, and the nerves springing 
from them. This arrangement is true enough as fai 
as it goes; but it is not sufficiently particular m 
definite for our purpose. For upon examining the 
interior of a human head, it will be found, that evert 
individual has two distinct brains^ called, in anato< 
mical language, the cerebrum and cerebellum j 
which, although in popular langui^e forming the en- 
tire nervous mass, called the brain, are really as dis- 
tinct, and yet as united, as the heart and lungs, and 
having somewhat analogous offices to perform. But 
to trace that analogy would be foreign to our present 
purpose, which is not to present an entire sketch oi 
the physiology of the brain, however brief; but only 
so much as is indispensably necessary to be known^ 
in order to comprehend the particular subject of this 
enquiry. The cerebrum forms the upper, and very 
much larger mass of the entire brain. Its surface is 
everywhere disposed in wavy furrows, 'not unlike the 
folds of the intestines ; and it is laterally divided into 
two halves, called hemispheres, and into smaller divi- 
sions called hbes. The interior is made up of various 
cavities, called ventricles; portions of grey matter^ 
sometimes called vesicular substance, from the little 
vesicles, or bladders, discoverable by the microscope 
in these substances ; various closely arranged fibres^ 
called commisures, or joinings, from their office of 
uniting the hemispheres, and probably enabling the 
symmetrical sides to conspire in united action; and 
of an immense number of delicately arranged minute 
fibres, forming together what is called the medullary 
substance of the brain. These fibres are arranged 
3.^ .. ^ into two classes ; those carrying forth the behests 
^ \ \ of the will, or mind, to the body ; and those bringing 
I to the general sensorium or mind, the sensations of 



VJ 



FHBNOMENA AND FHYSIOLOOT. 28 

le Tiody. On the surface of the hrain is a layer of 
rey STibstance, formed of innumerable delicate vesi- 
.es^ imbedded in an appropriate medium^ and called 
y 'the older anatomists the cortical ff lands. However^ 
Hysiologists may differ^ as to the exact microscopical 
3i*iiis^ or the uses of the individaal Tcsicles, the 
highest authorities concur with the older philosophical 
^Iiysiologists^ in considering the cortical substance of ( 
lie cerebrum, as forming the general sensorium, or \ ,\ ? 
naterial base of the perceptions and operations of the / 
nind. From this general sensorium one order of 
ibres may be considered as departing ; and to it, the 
>tlier, or sensory order, as arriving. The general ar- 
rangement of these fibres, and the cortical glands, may 
l)e seen in the engraving. No. 1, at the end. This 
is not intended for an exact representation of a section 
of the brain, inasmuch as several things have been 
omitted for the sake of clearness and simplicity. The 
dotted and incurvated margin, 1, wiU give a'general 
idea of the form and arrangement of the minute 
glands forming the sensorium; and the radiating lines 
shew the general course of the departing and arriving 
fibres, forming the efferent and afferent fibres of mo- 
dem physiology. The reader is requested, carefully 
to study these illustrative engravings, as it will render 
our remark^, and the whole subject, much easier of 
comprehension. 

But the cerebellum^ or little brain, as the word sig- 
nifies, not only differs in size and situation, but also 
in exterior and interior form : for the exterior surface, 
instead of the wavy folds of the cerebrum, is arranged 
in what are called laminae, or plates, which give it the 
appearance of a series of curved lines, as may be seen in 
the eugraving, No. 2, at c, c, and the interior has an ar- 
borescent, or tree-like appearance, so much so, that it has 
received the name of arbor-vitae, or, the tree of life. 
This tree, or plant-like appearance^ is very distinctly 
shewn in the first engraving, at 4. This appearance 
is entirely owing to the different arrangement of the 
fibres and grey substance. Now, viewing man as form- 



24 80MNOLI81C AND P8TCHBI81C. 



Ofdc^ 



ed according to the infinite wisdom and perfect 
of a Divine Creator, we must expect to find consma- 
mate order and design within nim ; and that evei^ 
organ of his body should be formed for some apecifiq 
and determinate tae, for usb is the great end of al 
the Creator's operations. Hence we may conclnd^ 
that each of these brains has its own specific uae ; and 
such, the more intimately the subject is examin^, the 
more will it be found the case. Such of those usei 
and distinctions as are necessary to be known to nn^ 
derstand the subject under consideration^ will be 
briefly pointed out. 

The engraving, No. 2, represents the general form 
of the base, or under part, of the human brain, as it 
would appear if the upper part of the spinal cord had 
been cut through, and the brain taken out of the cra- 
nium or skull, and laid down with its under-surface 
uppermost. For the sake of distinctness, the invest- 
ing membrane is removed, and the blood-yessels 
omitted. Various nerves are there shewn, issuing 
from the base of the brain, the commissure, or joining 
of the cerebellum, and the upper part of the medulla 
oblongata, or beginning of the spinal marrow. Thus, 
in front, are seen the bulbs of the olfactory nerves, or 
nerves of smell, issuing from the posterior part of the 
anterior lobes ; from these bulbs a multitude of nerv- 
ous filaments descend, which are spread out on the 
delicate membrane liTiiVig the labrynthine cavities con- 
nected with the nose, and thus forming the organ of 
smell. The optic nerves, or nerves of sight, also issue 
from the under part of the cerebrum, near the inner 
borders of the middle lobes, then approach each 
other, and form a union, shewn in the engraving, and 
called the optic commissure ; just beyond the com- 
missure they are represented as cut across, for the sake 
of shewing the olfactory bulbs ; but they actually pro- 
ceed forwards in the form of two white cords, through 
two orifices in the base of the skull at the back of the 
orbits, and enter the orbits and proceed to each eye- 
ball, where they spread out to form the delicate nerv- 



1»HEN0MENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 25 

ous expansion called the retina. Behind the optic 

nerves are seen the nerves which move the eyes. Then 

tlie fourth, fifth, and sixth pairs. These nerves, al- 

tlioixgh of interest to the physiologist, present no fea« 

tixres of peculiar interest for our inquiry, excepting, 

perhaps, the fifth pair, which partakes of the nature of 

both the cerebral and cerebellar systems. The seventh 

a.iid eighth pair are particularly involved in mesmeric 

plienomena ; but these will be noticed with the cere-' 

helium. It is also worthy of notice, that all the nerves 

of the cerebrum issue from its base, thus leaving the 

fibrous and cortical portions free; so that by this 

means, the general sensorium is placed in a region. 

cibfive the ministering nerves, and thus, as it were, 

wnidway between the mind and outward nature. 

Now it is essentially necessary to be known, in 
order to form any correct idea of the phenomena of 
mesmerism, that all the nerves of the body, innu- 
merable as they may appear to be, are connected, 
either directly or indirectly, by means of the spinal 
cord, with the cerebrum, or cerebellum. Some, in 
fact, arise directly from the brain ; but in speaking of 
their origin, no reference is intended to their develop- 
ment in the embryo, but to their situation and ii8e in 
the perfect organism. Also, ii ia necessary to know, 
that whatever may be the parentaJ, character, so to 
speak, of any nerve, that character it preserves to its 
termination, however circuitous its course may be, 
and however its filaments may be mixed up with nerves 
of another order, so as to form a compound nerve. 
This is one of those traits of Divine simplicity, which 
are so manifest in the animal economy. The blood 
vessels freely anastamose, as it is styled; that is, they 
run into, or unite with, each other in all directions ; 
but a nervous filament forms no union with its fellow^ 
but runs on iminterruptedly, and apparently inde- 
pendently, from its origin to its termination. Now 
all the nerves by which we feel or act, — that is, all 
the nerves of voluntaiy motion and sensation, are con- 
nected with the cortical glands of the cerebrum, either 

2 



2G 80HN0L1SM AND PSYCHEISM. 

directly, or indirectly, through the spinal marrow, tb« 
fibrous portion of which may be considered as a cw- 
tinuation of the cerebrum in the body. The Spinal 
Marrow, or spinal cord, which is contained in the 
canal channelled through the vertebrse, or bones o{ 
the back, commences within the cranium, at the base 
of the brain; its commencement is called the medulla 
oblongata, and is shewn in the engravings 2 and 5, where 
the different portions are delineated : it is also shewn 
in engraving 1. (*) in its course downwards. It extends 
in the adult, to about the second lumbar vertebra, where 
it terminates in a rounded point. The fibrous portion 
of the spinal cord, consists of two distinct columns, to 
whiclTa third may be added in its upper course. The 
anterior, or front column, is formed of what are styled 
inotor nerves, that is, nerves which are concerned in 
voluntary motion, and it receives, or gives origin to, 
the motor roots of the spinal nerves. In the anterior 
column, the fibres may be considered as descending. 
The posterior, or hinder column, of the spinal cord, 
consists of sensory fibres, which may be considered as 
ascending to the brain, and into this column, the 
sensory roots of the spinal nerves are inserted. It is, 
therefore, an assemblage of nerves of sensation. The 
upper part of the spinal cord, is sometimes divided 
\ into a middle column, which contains the roots of the 
nerves of respiration. Engraving 3, is a representation 
of a portion of the spinal cord viewed in front. The 
investing membrane is turned back, to shew the dis- 
tinct roots of the pair of spinal nerves exhibited. The 
fibres issuing from the anterior and posterior columns, 
are seen to be quite distinct. The anterior motor 
fibres, appear to go directly to the nerve, but the 
posterior, sensory fibres, first enter the swelling, or 
ganglion, shewn on the back part of the nerve. After- 
ward the fibres proceed side by side, but preserve their 
distinctive character. 

If the brain is attentively examined, the same se- 
paration of fibres, and a similar systematic arrange- 
ment, is observable. Engraving 4, represents a por- 



PHBNOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 27 

don of the brain dissected^ and on a larger scale than 
3ngravings 1 and 2. Here portions of nervous fibres 
may be seen passing by and through other nervous 
portions, and yet having no connection with them. 
Tlins^ a portion of motor fibres are seen passing under 
tlie arch of the optic nerves, and in nowise interfering 
with, the nerves of sight. Lower down they pass 
through the appendage and commissure of the cere- 
bellum, called the pons Varolii, or bridge of Varolius, 
and yet they are nninflnenced by the cerebellum, but 
preserve their cerebral character, and pass intact, and 
directly, into the forepart of the spinal cord. At (6) 
a column of sensory nerves may be seen ascending 
from the posterior portion of the cord, and passing by 
or in close connection with other nervous portions, 
without losing its own specific character. Thus the / 
arrangement of the spinal cord is seen to pervade the 
more complicated structure of the brain. Now it is : 
by this mode of arrangement, that the true character 
of the nerves at their origin is preserved to their ex- 
tremities. If the arm is lifted, it is so, by muscular 
power, communicated by nerves having their true ori- 
gin in the cerebrum. The same may be said of walk- 
ing, running, or any other action under the control of 
the will. All these voluntary and external actions, are 
done by and through the medium of the cerebrum. 
Hence the physiological use of the cerebrum is, to 
originate and control voluntary motion, and to receive 
the impressions brought by the sensory nerves. It is 
thus the soul's medium of voluntary action, and com- 
munication with the external world :— the great organ 
of what is called animal life. Hence pressure on the 
cerebrum, by paralyzing its action, instantly suspends 
all sensation and capability of motion. 

But the office of the cerebellum, the smaller and 
curiously organized portion of the entire brain, is of 
another kind. This is not the place to discuss the 
various opinions which have been propounded as to 
the use of this part of the nervous centre, nor of the 
exact function of the vesicular interior portion of the 

2* 



28 80MNOU8X AND P^TCUEISM. 

I 

spinal marrow, sometimea called the true spinal cordi 
n hat is called the reflex action of the spinal cord, an^ 
its connection and harmony with the general functions 
of the cerebellum, can be more appropriately discussed 
in a work expressly devoted to the physioli^y of this 
part of the nervous system. Suffice it here to say, 
) that from the genend investigation of these part% 
/ combined with Uie peculiar opportunities I have had 
i for investigating the action of the brain by the faculty 
, of lucidity, the cerebellum may be considered as the 
) great central organ or fountain of the functions of 
'( organic life : that is, of the life of the internal organs 
[ of the body, and of the involuntary motions. In this 
respect, the true spinal cord is a continuation of the 
cerebellum ; and reflex action, together with the abi- 
lity to move the limbs, so as to execute the behests of 
the will transmitted by the cerebral voluntary nerves, 
may be classified with cerebellar functions. The 
pulsations of the heart; the circulation of the blood ; 
the digestive action of the stomach and bowels; the 
actions of the reproductive organs; in a word, the 
thousand functions incessantly going on within t», 
and over which, fortunately for our safety, our wills 
have no control; — ^all these internal functions are un- 
der the control and direction of nerves proceeding 
either directly or indirectly from the cerebellum, or 
its appendages. This is chiefly effected by the instru- 
/mentality of the Great Sympathetic nerves, and the 
/ eighth pair already alluded to. 
7 The eighth pair of cranial nerves, called also the 
par vagum, or wandering nerve, also the pneumo- 
gastric, or nerve of the lungs and stomach, — ^arises by 
a number of filaments from between the olivary and 
restiform or rope-like bodies of the medulla oblongata, 
and its fibres may be traced backwards into the grey 
substance of the floor of the fourth ventricle; a cavity 
situated between the upper part of the back of the 
medulla oblongata, and the cerebellum. From the 
medulla oblongata a column of fibres is continued 
into the cerebellum, as may be seen in engraving 1 (^). 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 29 

1?lie pneumo-gastric thus has its origin in the direct 
strrestm of the inflaence of the cerebellum^ and is thus 
clxiefly a cerebellar nerve, although by some of its 
filaments it is connected with the system of the cere- 
binxixi^ and thus possesses a mia^ed character, the effect 
of 'wrliich is principally seen in the ftinction of respira- 
tion, which is, partially, a voluntary, but, principally, 
an involuntary action. The Great Sympathetic 
N"eiive8 differ from all the other nerves in the body, 
\>otli in their arrangement and their form. For they 
descend on each side of the spinal column, and in 
tl&eir descent are studded with small kernels or knots, 
called ganglia, each of which seems like a species of 
independent nervous centre. The sympathetic nepve 
is associated with the pneumo-gastric in supplying 
tlie nervous system of the stomach and lungs, and of 
tlie heart; and, by its intimate union with this im- 
portant nerve, it is brought into connection with the 
cerebellum. Numerous twigs enter and leave the 
various ganglia, and by these ramifications the sympa- 
thetic is united with all the nerves of the .body. 
^Engraving 5, is a diagram intended to illustrate 
the course and arrangement of the pneumo-gastric 
and sympathetic nerves. At 1 is the bridge of Varo- 
Hus, forming the commissure of the cerebellum; from 
this descends the medulla oblongata and spinal mar- 
row, and from the latter, various spinal nerves are 
given off on each side. The eighth pair, or pneumo- 
gastric, is shewn, as arising from between the olivary 
and restiform bodies, and after the junction of the 
filamentary roots, and the formation of a ganglion on 
each nerve, descending towards the chest, on each 
side, but at some distance from the spinal marrow. 
Between these nerves and the spinal cord, the sympa- 
thetic is seen descending, and the ganglions, or knots, 
in its course, together with the ascending, descending, 
and uniting filaments, are roughly pourtrayed. The 
diagram is to be considered rather as an illustration 
than a representation ; for these nervous systems are 
so complicated^ that they could only be shewn on a 



80 80MNOU8M AND 78YCHBI81I. 

very lai^ scale. Thoae who wish to see the varkm 
ramifications of the sympathetic, may do so in 
Manec's grand plate, and in some of the reduced 
copies. 

The great sympathetic and pneumo-gastric nerves, 
viewed as to their origin, connection, and uses, may 
be considered as the trunk of the system of the cere- 
beUum, just as the fibrous portion of the spinal mar- 
row forms the trunk of the system of the cerebrum; 
and by these trunks, together with the vesicular por- 
tion of the spinal cord, and the various spinal nerves, 
the entire brain is, as it were, omnipresent in the 
body. Now the existence, and distinct functions, of 
these t^f o brains, and the systems of nerves dependent 
on them, must be carefully remembered, if we would 
understand the phenomena of somnolism, or ordinary 
mesmerism. It is also necessary that we possess some 
idea of the mode by which the nerves become the in- 
struments of volition and sensation. Microscopic 
investigations have demonstrated, that each nervous 
fibril is a hollow tube, containing a substance called 
neurine; aud the cellular, or areolar tissue by which 
the fibrils are combined into nervous cords, is also 
permeable by a delicate fluid, or rather, a delicate 
moisture intervenes between each nervous fibril, and 
the various small bundles of fibrils, of which the en- 
tire nerve consists. It is also known, that by mus- 
cular exertion, electricity is developed : and the vesi- 
cular substances of the brain have been supposed to 
possess powers similar to an electric battery, and that 
the nervous fibres are the carriers of the energy there 
elaborated. As an analogy, the idea is a good one ; 
but when we conceive the two as identical, there is 
little doubt but that we are in error. From the re- 
sults of many experiments, to which reference is made 
farther on, it is evident that certain imponderable 
elements are continually flowing through the animal 
organism; and in peculiar states of that organism^ 
these currents are reversed. These currents have, 
therefore, a directive property, and so far, h polarity; 



PHENOMENA AND FHTSIOLOGT. 31 

but they haye not the exact properties of either mag- 
netism or electricity: although they may have the 
greatest affinity with the latter element. My own 
researches lead to the conclusion, that a vital aura is 
generated in the spherules of the brain and spinal 
cord, and, in fact, wherever nervous vesicular matter 
is found. This aura has a spiral motion along the 
surfaces of the nervous fibrils, and, perhaps, of the 
entire nerve, and it is the primary agent or effect of 
the Liiving Force, and the medium of connection also, 
with the elements of the macrocosm. The contained 
neurine, or nervons fluid, as it exists in living bodies, 
is necessary to preserve the nerve in working order ; 
and when, from any cause, there is a deficiency in 
this highly elaborated fluid, the nerve is, in proportion 
to that deficiency, unfitted to transmit the aura. This 
subject is stm undergoing investigation, and wiU be 
further explained and illustrated in another work. It 
is briefly fdluded to here, as it will be seen to throw 
light on some well-known, but curious mesmeric phe- 
nomena. 

It will further elucidate our subject to know the 
condition of the brain in wakefulness and sleep ; for 
it will be evident to every enquirer, that there is an 
analogy, and indeed similarity, between the observed 
effects of the mesmeric somnolency and the phe- 
nomena of ordinary sleep, especially as regards 
dreaming. The differing activity of the cerebrum in 
a state of wakefulness and sleep, has occasionally been 
seen in cases where the skull has been injured: it 
might also be inferred &om an attentive consideration 
of the structure and functions of the different parts of 
the cerebral mass ; T)ut it is plainly discemable by the 
faculty of lucidity. Perfect wakefulness consists in 
the activity of the entire brain, especially of the cere- 
brum. This larger portion of the brain has already 
been stated to consist of a mass of minute fibres, con- 
nected with the little cortical glands, as shewn in 
engraving, 1. In the active state of this portion of 
the brain, or, in other words, in the wakeful state, these 



82 •OMNOLI8M AND P8YCaXISM« 

fibres are comparatively erect and distinct from our 
another, and the corresponding lobules are also suf- 
ficiently separated so as to be able to move freely. 
The general arrangement of these fibres, with their 
parent glands, permits them to move either singly, or 
in greater or leeeer grmupi ; and hence arises the power 
of the will to exercise such an immense variety of 
muscular actions, and the rapidity and delicacy with 
which the behests of the will are transmitted by the 
nerves. When the cerebrum is in the fullest state of 
activity, these cortical spherules are elevated and pro^ 
jected to the extreme boundaries permitted by the 
skull and its lining membrane, the dura mater ; and 
indeed, in the activity of dreaming, they have been 
seen, in cases where portions of the skull have been 
removed, actually projecting beyond the circum- 
ference of their normal boundary. Every one must 
have experienced at times, an inability to sink into a 
state of sleep, notwithstanding the absence of any 
discoverable disease, and the greatest endeavours to 
court repose. This species of unwished for wakefiiK 
ness, is entirely owing to the erect, distinct, and active 
condition of the cortical spherules of the cerebrum, 
and an inability in the brain to collapse. For, in a 
state of inactivity or sleep, the fibres of the cerebrum 
collapse, or fall together, the cortical spherules or 
glands press on each other, and hence the capability 
of individual action ceases, and general insensibility 
and sleep foUows. This is the natural and healthy 
action; in diseased states of collapse, lethai^ and 
apoplectic stupor are the results. 

It has already been stated, that the organic and 
merely natural functions of the body, are under the 
control and direction of the cerebeUum and its ap- 
pendages. Of this action we are unconscious, but of 
the activity of the cerebrum we are conscious; and 
during its rule, — that is, while our wiUs actuate the 
animal economy, and the sensory nerves convey to the 
sensorium within the cerebrum, the various im- 
pressions made by outward objects, the cerebrum 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 33 

Si^ppears to dominate and rale the system. But when 
sleep seals up the eyelids^ and the activity of the 
<5erebrum ceases^ then nature/ or the involuntary 
portion of our nervous centre, — that is the cerebellum^ 
'iwith its derivatives, has the entire control and direc- 
t;ioii of the animal kingdom. It is well known that 
* ^ balmy sleep'Ms " tired nature's kind restorer :'' but 
it is not so generally known, that one great reason 
for the refreshing and restorative nature of sleep, 
oonsists in the complete suspension of the faculties of 
"the cerebrum, and the operations of nature being 
carried on by the cerebellar system, without any of 
those manifold disturbing causes, which arise from 
our voluntary and conscious activities. The form, 
structure, and functions of the cerebellum, neither 
permits nor requires the complicated and infinitely 
varied motions of the cerebrum. It possesses a 
general power of expansion and contraction ; and this 
power is also possessed by the cerebrum, whose hemi- 
spheres admit of a like contraction and expansion, in 
addition to the individual activity of specific fibres 
and spherules, or groups of spherules. In profound 
sleep, therefore, the whole brain is reduced to the 
simple primary organic action of the cerebellum. 

This expansive and contractile motion of the brain, 
must not be confounded with the pulsatile movements 
observable in the heads of young children, and which 
is chiefly confined to the arteries of the dura mater; 
but it is an independent, and, as it may be styled, 
automatic movement, synchronous, or keeping time, not 
with the pulsations of the heart, but with the respira* 
tion of the lungs. In fact, it might be shewn that 
the automatic movement of the brain, is the internal 
cause of the respiratory movement of the lungs, and 
that thus it conspires with the external cause, — that 
is, the admission of the atmospheric air, to communi- 
cate a regular and combined series of motions to all 
the viscera of the body. The motion of the brain is 
just beginning to be admitted as a fact in physiology ; 
but the discovery is not recent, for it has lain dormant 



/ 



84 SOMNOLISlf AND PSTCHSISM. 

for a century^ in the latinity of the profoundest phy- 
Biologist of the last age. I have satisfied myadf of 
the fact by repeated experiments^ and also^ that the 
spinal cord possesses a similar movement. 

One important result of the brain's automatic 
movement is, that it has the control of the blood cir- 
culating within it, and is not, in this respect, governed 
by the heart, though dependant on that organ for the 
supply of the living fluid. This has been generally 
overlooked, although the form and course of the blood 
vessels supplying the brain, and the general economy 
of the system, point distinctly to such a conclusion. 
If the arteries in their course to the bodily viscera, are 
everywhere attended by nerves from the great sym- 
pathetic system, so that the course of the blood within 
them, propelled by the heart, may be regulated and 
directed by nervous energy, acting in unison with 
the organic nerves of the different viscera, and thus, 
in a state of health, the blood may be rather invited 
into, than forced upon the visceral organs ; how much 
more, may we expect to find the great nervous centre 
itself, provided with a power of regulating its supply. 
The heart may be compared to the weights of a clock, 
or the mainspring of a watch, and the nerves accom- 
panying the arteries, to the pendulum or balance wheel; 
and every one acquainted with the mechanism of 
clocks and watches, knows, that their correctness as 
time-keepers depends on the proper adjustment and 
mutual action of these two forces. So does the 
general health of the body depend upon a proper 
adjustment of these living forces ; and the derange- 
ment of one force, will lead to the disorder of the 
other. 
> The primary physical cause of sleep, consists in the 
^ collapse, or falling together, of the cortical spherules, 
; and medullary fibres of the cerebrum; the secondary 
' cause, which acts as a one with the primary, is, that 
[ by this collapse the blood is shut off, as it were, and 
/ prevented from entering the finer channels of the brain, 
' ^specially those individually supplying the minute 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 35 

splLOPnles. The blood is thus confined to its general 
ofiKce of supplying nutrition and living force. To 
ei:^able the brain the better to control the force of the 
Ixea.irt^ and to form a distinct boundary between the 
ppo^vince of the heart and the province of the brain^ 
t;li.e fnain arteries supplying the brain^ just before 
eix'tering it^ are bent into a tortuous course^ which has 
X1.0 direct parallel in any other part of the body; so 
t;li.a± on the mechanical principles of hydraulics^ the 
onmson torrent is impeded, and partiaUy arrested in 
lt;s course. The engraving. No. 6, represents the ar- 
t^enes supplying the brain, and the principal branches, 
x'emoved from their situation, and placed on a flat sur- 
fsbce, or plane, so as to shew something of their curva- 
t;ures, and general arrangement. The vertebral arte- 
nes, 1, 1, pass through a canal channelled in the cervical 
vertebrae, or bones of the neck, and then wind back- 
awards around the articulating process of the atlas, or 
first bone of the neck, before entering the skull, through 
tlie large opening. The two vertebrals then unite to 
form the basilar artery, that is, the strait artery ly- 
ing along the base of the brain, and from this the 
branches proceed at right angles^ as shewn in the en- 
graving. The vertebrals are the arteries of tJie cere- 
bellum, and it will be obvious to the reader, that the 
blood will be rather invited than forced into that 
organ. For the course of the blood is forwards to- 
wards the communicating arteries; but there the 
stream is arrested by the flexure of the posterior 
cerebral arteries, 7, 7, and the fluxion in the com- 
municating branches : the blood has, therefore, to pass 
from the basilar artery in lateral currents, as shewn in 
the figure; and is thus, by all these contrivances, 
mechanically impeded from rushing of its own accord 
into the recesses of the cerebellum ; while at the same 
time, these same contrivances, serve to keep the 
basilar artery filled, as a perpettuil reservoir for the 
supply of the great nervous fountain of life. The two 
great ends oi perpetual supply, and regulated quantity, 
are thus provided for. 



86 80MN0LISM AND FSYCflBISlf. 

• In the cerebram, the regulating principle^ is stitl 
further provided for. For the flexure of the internal 
carotids, which are the arteries of the cerebrum, is 
greater than that of the vertebrals, as may be seen in 
the engraving. Mr. Erasmus Wilson observes, '' The 
course of this artery is remarkable for the number of 
angular curves it forms ; one or two of these flexures 
are sometimes seen in the cervical portion of the 
vessel, near the base of the skull; and by the side of 
the sella turcica, it resembles the italic letter «, placed 
horizontally •'' It will be evident also, firom the re- 
presentation given, that although the carotids are 
larger than the vertebrals, yet from the peculiar ar- 
rangement, and comparative smallness of the branches 
proceeding directly from them, there will be less 
power to force the blood into the cerebrum than into 
the cerebellum. It will be seen also, that notwith- 
standing the many hindrances to the circulation of 
the blood, so as to favour the regulating principle, still 
a supply of blood to the brain is insured. For if the 
supply by the vertebrals was cut off, by ligature, or 
otherwise, the carotids would furnish a stream by the 
communicating branches, though in deficient^ quan- 
tity ; and vice versa, if the course in the carotids were 
stopped, the vertebrals would furnish some supply by 
the same channels. So guarded are the avenues of 
life ! From these communicating branches, this 
group of arteries is called the circle of Willis. Ana- 
tomists and physiologists, have noticed the communis 
eating contrivance; but have strangely overlooked, 
the equally obvious reasons for the flexures and gene- 
ral arrangement just pointed out. 

The venous system of the brain, corresponds with 
the arterial. In the body the veins are furnished 
with valves, by which the return, or regurgitation of 
the blood is prevented, and the whole arrangement is 
such, as to assist, and force on the blood to the heart. 
In the brain this is not so ; but, the eooit, as well as 
the entrance of the blood, is, as it were, self-governed. 
Fqr, as also observed by Mr. Wilson, in his Anatomist';; 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 37 

Vad.e Mecum^ *'The cerebral veins are remarkable 
for the essence of valves, and for the extreme tenuit j 
of their coats ;^^ and, "the superior cerebral veins, 
seven or eight in number, on each side, pass obliquely 
fbnruyards, and terminate in the superior longitudinal 
sinixs, in ike opposite direction to tlve course of the 
stream of the blood in the sintis,^' This arrangement 
ia shewn in the engraving 7. The fold of the 
superior and densest membrane of the skull, called 
the dura mater, and which dips down between the 
hemispheres of the cerebrum, and from its general 
form, is called fala^ cerebri, or the sickle of the brain, 
is represented at 1, 1. Above is seen the venous 
canal, channelled in the substance of the dura mater, 
and called the superior, or upper longitudinal sinus, 
fl, 2, and below the inferior, or lower sinus, with their 
connections, and receiving veins. The oblique po- 
sition of the superior cerebral veins is shewn, and the 
course of the stream of the blood, is indicated by the 
direction of the arrows. Here, then, the absence of 
valves, the tenuity of the coats, by which the reactive 
power of the vein is diminished; and the oblique 
position of the cerebral veins, contrary to the course 
of the blood, all conspire to impede what may be 
called the attractive, or suction-power of the heart, 
and to retain the blood under the government of the 
brain, until fairly within the sinus of the dura mater. 
So that the invitation of the arterial blood, and the 
discharge of thie venous blood, are, by a series of me- 
chanical contrivances, .placed in harmony with the 
automatic movement, and presiding control of the 
brain. Whatever, therefore, induces a change in the 
internal state of the cortical spherules, and the de- 
pendant fibres of the cerebrum, changes the state of 
its automatic action, modifies the influx and current 
of the blood, and thence produces, either somnolency, 
or watchfulness. 

Having thus briefly pointed out what there is good 
reason to believe, is the true physiology of the brain, 
it is now proposed^ to present a sketch of the various 



38 80MNOLI8H AND PSYCflEISM. I 

phases, under which vital magnetic, or mesmeric phe- 
nomena present themselves, and then proceed to shew, 
that a true physiology of the nervous system, combined 
with just psychological ideas, furnishes the true key to 
unlock these generally considered mysteries. 



that of mesmeric drowsiness or sleep, which may vary 
in intensity, from the mere feeling of heaviness or 
drowsiness, to a state of light and placid sleep. This 
state, and even the more advanced ones, may be in- 

. duced by a variety of methods, provided the subject 
possesses what may be styled, the mesmetic condition 

/ of the brain: it does not depend so much on the 
operator, or the mode of manipulation, as upon the 

\ receptive state of the subject. This is the reason 
why such apparently discordant results have been ob- 
tained, and such differing views entertained of the 
causative influence. The earlier magnetizers prac« 
tised a variety of complicated passes, pressing of the 
thumbs, and fixed gaze on the eyes; and they taught^ 
that by these means a fluid, which they called Animal 
Magnetism, passed from the operator to the subject. 
A similar influence has been considered as the active 
agent, by many who have adopted the name of Mes- 
merism. There is, undoubtedly, some elementary 
connection, between the operator and his subject in 
all really mesmeric states, as we shall see in the sequel ; 
and mind is, no doubt, the primary agent, in the 
production of what I prefer calling psychical phe- 
nomena. But all these states have their peculiar 
physiological basis; and for the more common results, 
a physiological change is sufficient. This may be in- 
duced in those possessing the mesmeric condition, 
without the aid of an operator, merely by the subject 
steadfastly gazing for a longer or shorter period at 
some small fixed object held near the eye, and upon 
which the whole attention is concentrated. Here, both 
the mental and bodily acts, are just such as conduce 
to the somnolent condition of the brain in susceptible 
persons, and these only are affected by it, just as 



V 



The simplest visible state, has been classified as i 






PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 39 

Ii&ppons under the ordinary mesmeric mode of pro- 
ceedixig. Dr. Braid introduced this mode^ and^ pro- 
l>£kbly^ to avoid the prejudice against the name of / 
Tx^eanaerism^ called it Hypnotizing the patients ; that ^ 
is^ SLOcording to the meaning of the Greek root of the 
l^eirxn.^ sleepizing them. But in reality^ all hypnotized v, 
pskt^ents are mesmerised^ and mesmerised patients are , ^ 
]:iy^i[iotized. Where the party is sufficiently suscepti- / ' 
l>le, the merely hypnotic, or somnolent condition 
pi*epares the way for all the subsequent developments; 
su[i.d hence Dr. Braid found in some of his subjects 
xKLOst interesting displays o£ phreno-mesmerism. I 
Ira^e induced the state by all the methods, but prefer 
tike ordinary mesmeric mode, as the safest and best. 
When parties gaze too long, without experiencing 
-tlie mesmeric somnolence, an undue determination e£ 
l>lood to the fore part of the head, is very likely to be 
tlie result. There is another mode of operating, re- 
cently introduced fnmL America, called Electrical 
fsychology, or Biology; but the state induced, is 
essentially that which is understood by the mes- 
xneric. 

My usual mode of proceeding, is, simply to place the 
patient in a sitting posture before me, and to take both 
his hands in my left, and then place my right hand 
on his head, at the same time, desiring the subject 
to yield himself willingly to the expected influence, 
and to concentrate his attention on me by looking at 
my eyes. If the patient does not speedily yield, I 
then try the efiect of a few passes, made from the fore- 
head chfvnwards, or &om the back of the head, down- 
wards along the course of the spine. If the party can 
be mesmerised, hypnotized, or whatever else it may be 
called, it will generally take place within half an hour, 
or at furthest an hour. But if at the expiration of 
the former period, no effect is produced, I should 
haye little hope of succeeding at that sitting. Some 
wiU speedily yield on the first trial. I have frequently 
seen this take place after five or ten minutes' trial, 
and, sometimes, after a mere wave or two of the hand 



( 



40 80MNOLI81C AND P8YCHKI81C. 

over the bonnet of a sasceptible female. In the first 
stages of mesmeric sleep^ the patient generally feels a 
marked degree of tranquility, and evinces considerable 
disinclination to be withdrawn from it. Some, how- 
ever, are morose and heavy. This simple state, I 
consider the most useful, and all that is required, in 
cases of disease, or as a curative agent ; indeed, in 
some of the most marked cases of benefit on record, 
the patients have never experienced anything beyond 
a gentle soothing influence. But it is sufficiently ob- 
vious, how valuable such a direct soothing influence 
must be in allaying irritability, and restoring the 
diseased to health; unattended, as such influence 
is, with any of the inconveniences of ordinary nar- 
cotics. 

Coma, is merely a deeper state of the mesmeric 
somnolency. When this state is established, all the 
rest may follow ; some of the interesting phases are 
sure to do so. In this condition the vital aura, flowing 
along the nerves, is strikingly susceptible of directive 
influence, and hence arises the very common phe- 
nomenon of catalepsy, or constrained rigidity of the 
muscles. By a few strokes of the hand, the patient's 
arm will become rigid, as in death, and he will have 
no power of bending it, or of lowering it, if extended. 
If the hand of a person of about the same physical 
strength as the mesmerised subject, is placed in the 
hand of the subject, and the fingers made to clasp it^ 
it will be found almost impossible to withdraw it, so 
tight will be the grasp. But, what appears the 
strangest thing is, that, notwithstanding this great 
apparent exertion of muscular power, the mesmerised 
subjects will continue to converse on various topics, 
and pay not the slightest attention to the state of 
their limbs, or the use to which that muscular power 
is being applied. They appear to be wholly uncon- 
scious of their peculiar state, or of the muscular power 
they are displaying. The amount of that power may 
be convincingly proved, by any one holding out an 
^m extended in one position only for a few minutes. 



PHENOMENA AND PHTSIOLOOT. 41 

Lsdly if some weighty such as a poker^ is held at the 

same inme by the extended hand. Yet a mesmerised 

c&t;3lerptic subject will hold out the arm for an indefi- 

ixii;e period, - without any apparent langour; and sus- 

±$1.1x1. "fche additional strain of a moderate weight, as if 

'tlxe laws of muscular action and gravity were sus- 

pexxded ! Of course, there are bounds to these expe- 

njoxents ; a strong man will have sufficient power to 

l>exi.d down the arm of most mesmerised females; but 

t;li.e arm will yield to the pressure, like an inanimate 

lever, and as soon as the pressure is removed, will 

rcb€nmd, as if elastic, to the position in which it had 

I>oen placed by the operator. 

Sut the phenomena above alluded to, are among 
t;he simplest of these displays. Where the patient is 
Birfficiently susceptible, the mouth may be closed, by 
St single pressing of the Ups together, and this may 
l>e done so instantaneously, as to leave a word half- 
pronounced; and then, by a single pass, as speedily 
set at libei'ty. Even the nostrils may be partially 
closed, by a single pinch, so as instantly to produce 
the nasal twang, common upon stoppage of the nasal 
passages by cold, or by msdformation ; and, then, as 
quickly, by a mere wave of the hand, be restored to 
perfect freedom, and the accustomed tone of voice. 
Some subjects, whUe putting themselves in various 
postures, may instantly be rendered immoveable, and 
statue-like in any posture. I saw this beautifully ex- 
emplified in two subjects operated on by Mr. Spencer 
Hall ; one a young man, the other a youth. Under 
the influence of phreno-mesmerism and music, they 
assumed the most beautiful attitudes, balancing them- 
selves, sometimes, on the fore part of one foot. By 
stopping the 'music, and a single pass, Mr. Hall ar- 
rested their motions so suddenly, that they remained 
immoveably balanced in the position in which their 
motions were arrested. Mr. Hall lifted one off the 
floor, while thus rigidly cataleptic, and the legs and 
arms still retained the same relative position to each 
other; and when set on the floor again, on one foot 



42 aOMNOLUM AND FSTCHSISH. 

M before^ the body stood firm, so exactly was the 
centre of gravity preserved. I have not been able to 
find a subject equal to these, in this respect. An- 
other singular result of cataleptic action, is the i^ 
parent attraction which subsists between the subject 
and inanimate objects. By a single pass, or pressure, 
an individual may be rooted, as it were, by his feet 
to the floor, as if held, by an irresistible attraction ; 
or seated immoveably in a chair; or his hands fixed 
so firmly to a wall, bench, or any other object, that he 
finds it impossible to withdraw them, although violent 
efforts are made to do so. If a rod, or any other suit- 
able article be put in the hand, and the hand closed 
by the operator, by no effort can the subject let it go; 
although he may be so far demesmerised, as to be 
conscious of his state. On the contrary, by a mere 
pass of the hand of the operator, and sometimes, even 
by an effort of his vnUy without any outward visible 
action, the mesmerised party finds it equally impossi- 
ble to retain his hold. We shall notice these states 
again, under the head of Phantasy. 

From a series of experiments With my clairvoyaat 
subject, both while in the full mesmeric state, and 
when recalled to wakeful consciousness, but with the 
lucid faculty in activity, it appears, that the physiolo- 
gical cause of mesmeric rigidity, consists in the altered 
condition of the vital electric current, and the state 
of the blood. The blood is resolvable into many in- 
gredients; but, as the living fluid, it may be con- 
sidered as possessing only two distinct substances, 
which consist of an infinitude of very small corpuscles, 
or globules, as they have been called, floating in a 
straw-coloured fluid, called the serum; the redness 
of the blood being due to the presence of these cor- 

r puscles, There is a general life in the blood, and an 
individual life in eyery globule ; for the globules are 
receptive of, and under the influence of, the vital 

' aura, or electricity. There is a current of this vital 
aura proceeding spirally along the motor nerves ; and 

\ currents also accompany the arteries and veins ; in 



PHENOMENA AND PHTSI0L06T. 48 

fact^ from the multiplicity of arteries^ veins^ and ^ 
nerves, tlie entire mass of the body is pervaded by : 
this sixbtile fluid. When, by pressure, or downward ( 
passes, "the directive force of this elementary fluid is I 
cliaixgedj there ensues a mutual attraction between ( 
the cirrrent accompanying the artery, and the con- \ 
tained globiQes ; the effect of which is to separate the ' ^ 
glohules from the serum in which they float, and to 
'witltdraw them to the periphery, or inner surfaces of i 
the artery, and to allow the serum to pass along the y 
cexLl^re. By this means the globules become appa- 
rently clotted together, but move on in hollow spires. 
T*^early the same thing is observable in the returning 
veixis, and the same condition appears to pervade the 
liml>^ but is more obvious in the larger vessels. From 
this altered directive force, mutual attraction, and 
agglomeration of the globules, arises the general rigi- 
dity. Mesmeric rigidity has been most beneficially 
employed as a curative agent, in the restoration to 
strength of palsied, or weakened limbs. In the suc- 
cessful cases, the patients have been sufficiently sus- 
ceptible, to become the subjects of mesmeric rigidity ; 
and by keeping the weak limb under its influence, the 
muscular energy has become developed. The best 
and most amusing displays of catalepsy, are generally 
found in fresh subjects. \ 

Another striking result of the full development of 
the mesmeric coma, is ANiESTHEsiA, or insensibility to 
LIGHT and PAIN, or in other words, the absence of ex- 
ternal sensation. If the eye of a patient in the fiill 
somnolent state, is examined, it will generally be 
found drawn upwards and inwards, and this, perhaps, 
in proportion to the complete development of the 
state j but it will exhibit little, if any, susceptibility 
to the influence of light. I have satisfied myself by 
repeated and careful observation, that all external 
vision is withdrawn. There are, however, stages of 
coma, in which the eye remains open, but the pupil 
fixed, or nearly so, and without the power of sight. 
In slight coma, and in the simple mesmeric sleep, the 



44 BOMNOLISM AND PSTCHEISM. 

sight is not withdrawn ; for although the patients are 
frequently unable to open the eyes, yet, on tlie lids 
being raised, they can see as usual. The state now 
under notice, is most striking, most certain, and at- 
tested by the most competent professional authorities; 
but it is comparatively rare. I have only seen one 
perfect instance of it, but, with very limited observa- 
tion, several, in whom it partiaUy existed. In a com- 
plete case, there is the healthy skin, with its infini- 
tude of nervous papillae, but it exhibits no sign of 
feeling. The most sensitive parts may be pinched, or 
pricked vrith needles or pins, and the patient exhibit 
no consciousness of suffering, or in fact of any kind 
of feeling, but will continue to converse with the mes- 
meriser, or by-standers, without noticing in the least 
degree, the apparently painful experiments. Nay 
more, it is an undoubted fact, that the most painful 
surgical operations have been performed, both in this 
country and in others, without the patient evincing 
any susceptibility. One case was briefly narrated in 
the first edition of this work, and that I again repeat, 
because the professional persons engaged were of the 
highest eminence in Paris j the case is fully recorded 
in the French Medical Journals, and is also contained 
in the Penny Cyclopadia, under the article of Som- 
nambulism, so that the reader may easily assure him- 
self of its genuineness. But since this work first went 
to press, I have seen as many accounts of surgical 
operations performed in India, without pain, while 
the patients were under the influence of the mesmeric 
coma, as would occupy all our pages. Some of these 
operations were of the most formidable kind ; the re- 
moval of immense tumours, weighing 30 and 40 
pounds, and some even much larger. Some years 
ago a similar operation was performed on a Chinese 
in London; but the patient died on the operation 
table ; the shock was more than nature could endure. 
But in these more formidable Indian cases, the pa- 
tients made good recoveries, and were spared the 
shockj as well as the pain. It would seem that the 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 46 

Hindoo races^ are peculiarly susceptible of the mes- 
meric influences^ and are thus easily put into the 
state of coma. 

An elderly French lady^ Madame Planting was the 
subject of cancer in the breast. Her physician^ Dr. 
Cliapelain, was a practiser of mesmerism^ or^ as the 
Frencli call it^ magnetism^ and he had frequently 
employed that agency, in conjunction with other 
means^ to abate, and, if possible, cure, that dreadfiil 
malady. But he found, that although he could al- 
ways allay pain, and put the lady into a state of com- 
plete ease by mesmerising her, yet the disease con- 
tinued its ravages, and the only hope was considered 
to be in an operation ; — that is, by amputating the 
breast. When this only alternative was proposed to 
ber in the wakefcd or normal state, it produced the 
most intense anguish and apprehension ; but in the 
abnormal mesmeric state, she would discuss the matter 
calmly with her physician and friends. At last the 
operation was determined on, and M. Jules Cloquet, 
tbe eminent Parisian surgeon, was chosen for the 
operator. It took place on the 14th of April, 1829; 
and the surgeon, in his narrative of the case, says, 
that he found the lady seated in a chair, her eyes 
closed as if in sleep, yet conversing with her physician, 
who had put her into the mesmeric, or somnolent, state 
some short time before. She spoke calmly of the in- 
tended operation ; removed her own dress to expose 
her bosom to the surgeon^s knife; and during the 
operation, which lasted about a quarter of an hour, she 
conversed freely with the surgeon, and with the physi- 
cian, who was seated by her, supporting the arm on 
the diseased side, without exhibiting the slightest pain 
or consciousness of what was going on. The lady was 
then put to bed, and carefully attended to, vnthout 
being awaked from the mesmeric state. On the next 
day but one, the first dressings were removed, usually 
a most painful trial to the patient; the wound dressed 
again, and then, after the lapse of some time, shew as 
aroused ; having been kept for more than two days in the 



46 SOMNOLMM AND P8TCHVISM. 

I 

mesmeric or somnolent state. When awakened^ she was 
nnconscious of all that had transpired since she was | 
put into the sleep, more than two days before ! When 
she discoveredthatherbreasthadbeenremoved^ that the 
wound had been dressed, and found herself surrounded 
by anxious and sympathising relatives, her feeUiigs 
may be better imagined than described ! After the 

Eublication of the First Edition of this work, I was 
indly presented by a gentleman, personally unknown 
to me, with a French work, containing other interest- 
ing particulars respecting this case, especially the 
clairvoyance of a married daughter of the lady. It 
appears that Madame Plantin died fourteen days after- 
wards, from bodily disease, and it is a question, how 
£ar it was worth trying the experiment of removing 
the breast. Bat it certainly got rid of one source of 
irritation, and after death, the wound was found three 
parts healed over. This case is referred to again, 
further on, nnder the head of churvoyance. 

A few cautionary remarks may not be misplaced here. 
It must not be supposed, because persons in a state of 
somnolency feel no pain, that therefore, they will be un- 
conscious of any injury inflicted on them, when they 
return to the normal state : on the contrary, when 
they are aroused, they will feel the effect of any injury, 
just in proportion to its severity. Common humanity, 
therefore, requires, that experiments made to ascertain 
the state of the sensibility, should be such as only to 
occasion transient pain. But I have heard of the 
most unwarrantable proceedings on the part of some 
medical gentlemen, and I have seen the arms of my 
patient discoloured over no small extent from the 
pinches of a sceptical party. Of course, I took care to 
prevent such occurrences for the future. It is to be 
regretted that the endeavour is not more generally 
made, to ascertain, whether parties on whom an ope- 
ration is likely to be performed, could be brought into 
^ a state of coma. As I have said, it seems a rare state, 
I and that comparatively few English people become 
' the subject of it. But if real, and ever so slight, it 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 47 

^^ would blunt the shock of an operation, and in its 
Qv deepest state is free from danger^ whieli cannot be 
^ said of ether or chloroform. But the latter is never- 
/tbeless a valuable agent, and the more so, because 
1 more generally applicable. 

7 The states already described, result from the more 
.. or less perfect closure of the external perceptions, and 
,f the physiological conditions necessary to such closure. 
. But it is found, that, in most subjects, after sufficient 
' practice, a new or abnormal consciousness is awaken- 
ed ; first of all, of a mere imaginative character, and 
by degrees of a more rational description. The most 
common, and generally the earliest manifestation of 
an abnormal consciousness, is seen in what is called 
Phreno-Mesmerism. This is the name usually ap- 
\ plied to the manifestation of the phrenological senti- 
ments and feeUngs, in a mesmeric subject. Some of 
these are very striking; by pressing with the finger 
on the portion of the skull, marked on phrenological 
busts as the organ of veneration, the subject will 
manifest religious feelings, sometimes of the pro- 
foundesl kind, especially if the sentiment is called 
more strongly forth, by the soimds of appropriate 
music. Even the naturally irreligious will now dis- 
play high religious feeling, and sometimes the pro- 
foundest veneration. I have seen the whole counte- 
nance lighted up as with a seraphic glow, while under 
the combined influence of sacred music and pressure 
on the organ : in general, the result will correspond 
with the development of the organ. By pressure on 
Firmness, especially if accompanied by martial or in- 
spiring music, the highest degree of courage and de- 
termination may be called forth ; and, by proper ma- 
nipulation, the other sentiments and feelings, such as 
Benevolence, Sympathy, Acquisitiveness, Philo-pro- 
genitiveness, Destructiveness, and so forth. 

Phreno-mesmerism has been considered as afford- 
ing a triumph to the materializing class of phreno- 
l(^st8, and hence it has been decried, and attempted 
to be set aside^ by the metaphysical spiritualists; and 



48 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHEI8M. 

it has also been objected to by those who would set 
forth mesmeric phenomena under a disguised name, 
because, in some instances, the state may be induced 
without contact with the cranium. Possibly each of 
these classes of reasoners has been wrong, and their 
error has arisen from narrowing the premises. Cer- 
tainly, the mere placing of the finger of the operator 
on any part of the head, and its being followed by the 
manifestation of the sentiment, or feeling, proper to 
the organ said to be situated in the part touched, is 
no positive proof that such organ is really there ; be- 
cause the idea of the sentiment is in the operator's 
mind, and the fact may be accounted for, by mesmeric 
imaginative action^ and the transfer of feeling. Again, 
anatomy reveals nothing within the cranium^ analo- 
gous to the arbitrary division marked on phrenological 
busts. Besides, when we touch the head, the skull 
prevents ns acting directly on the brain; we only 
excite the extremities of those cranial nerves that 

\ ramify in the scalp. I understand. Dr. Braid has ex- 
cited Veneration by touching the subject^s knee, and 

I by this means induced him to kneel down, as if in 

* prayer. 

The opportunities I have had for acquiring experi- 
ence, enables me positively to assert, that contact with 
at least certain parts of the head of a sufficiently sus- 
ceptible mesmeric subject, will excite those feelings 
phrenologically ascribed to those particular portions. 
Thus I have seen alimentiveness most powerfully ex- 
cited, in such a subject, who, when left alone a little 
while, and reclining with the head on the table, occi- 
dentally rttbbed that part of the head where alimentive- 
ness is said to be situated, against the edge of the 
table. Fortunately it was discovered before any seri- 
ous mischief occurred ; but under the excitement of 
the organ, the subject had gnawed the sleeve of her 
dress, so as to destroy the end of it, and had imprinted 
her tooth marks deep in her own arm ! Had the ex- 
citement been continued, I have no doubt, but that, 
from the abeyance of external feeling, she would have 



PHBNOHBNA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 49 

inflicted a serious injury on herself. Again^ I have 
seen philo-progenitiveness excited^ by accidentally rub" 
hing the occipital portion of the head against a high- 
backed chair^ in which the subject was sitting; besides 
other instances^ some of which were of the highest in- 
terest in B, physiolofficaljpoiat of view^ but not suitable 
for narration in the pages of this work. But this ap- 
parent proof of the materialist view of the question^ is 
merely one side of the subject. For I have seen some 
of the phrenological sentiments excited ndthotU touch- 
ing the head. Thus^ upon simply taking my subject 
by the hand^ and silently thinking reverently of the 
Deity, she haa faUen down on her knees, and mani- 
fested the most profound veneration ! On other occa- 
sions^ when I have had several subjects mesmerised at 
the same time^ on touching and exciting the ^^ (nrgans'^ 
in the head of one^ the others, without any touch, or 
connection, or any knowledge of my action, have 
manifested the same sentiment, and each, according 
to their peculiar genius and temperament. This does 
not prove the fallacy of phreno-mesmerism, or that the 
brain is not organized in harmony with distinct senti- 
ments and feeluigs. It only shews that the primary 
impulse, in such experiments, is of a psychological 
character, and that the action of the mind induces 
the physiological condition. The accidental circum- 
stances above stated, prove that mind has a material, 
basis while connected with the bodily organism, and 
that from their intimate connection, and the peculiar 
condition in which the mesmerised subject is placed, 
an excitement of the basis, produces a corresponding 
excitement in the animating principle. Upon the 
whole, I think the real evidence afforded by vital mag- 
netism, or mesmerism, is favourable to phrenology; 
but I am far from thinking, that the evidence, pro- 
perly interpreted, necessarily leads to that sort of ma- 
terialism which is by many persons associated with 
phrenological doctrines. The brain is undoubtedly 
the mind's organ : this position remains, whether we 

8 



\ 




48 8D«'' jjfD PSTCHEISH. 

it has ^ ffffcs the whole brain in ereiy 

forth ^ :Ir^^ *^ appropriate part, 

bee l-^'l^^^f *^* phreno-mesmerism is the re- 

w' ^^^^^fi^ action ; and that^ in fact, all mes- 
t ^^"jS^s but an electrical phenomenon: the 

^ *^ing positively electrified, — ^the patient nega- 
^S*^, For this, I believe, there is no evidence 
fi^^. The facts of magnetism and electricity 
; iri^^iy well serve to illustrate mesmeric phenomena 
' ^Me ^ popular audience, and electricity may be made 
^'^findate certain vital actions ; but it is admitted by 
the best physiologists, that there is no identity be- 
^aen electricity or magnetism, and the nervous influ- 
ence. I have not perceived any difference in the 
electrical state of the mesmerised subject and the 
operator ; whereas, according to the theory, electrical 
attraction and repulsion ought to be manifested. 
Whatever name or causey may be assigned to mes- 
meric agency, it is undoubtedly a vital one. It is 
true, as observed in the outset, that within the living 
organism are collected all the powers of the universe ; 
but they are in the organism, in its own peculiar 
manner. It has a magnetism and a chemistry of its 
own; which are living actions , analogous to outward 
cosmical and terrestrial activities, but perfectly dis- 
tinct from them ; and, it is presumed, existing in a 
degree above them. They may be considered as the 
antetypes of the types found in outward nature. 

Phantasy and transfer of state and feeling, 
which I have classified after phreno-mesmerism, may, 
I think, be considered, but as more advanced stages 
of the same imaginative action. By phantasy , is 
meant such an action on the mind of the mesmerised 
party, that the mereMf^^^^/ton^of the mesmeriser, or, 
it may be, of some other person, sometimes even, not 
audibly expressed, but merely silently willed, are taken 
for realities. Thus, a handkerchief being thrown into 
the lap of a susceptible subject, and at the same time the 
operator thinking of any harmless or pleasing living ob- 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 51 

ject^ such as a rabbity a gtiinea^pig^ or a child^ or even of 
disagreeable objects^ as a snake^ or other reptiloi and 
at tbe same time vnlling that the mesmerised party 
sliall £euiC7 the handkerchief to be the animal which 
is the subject of the operator's thoughts^ and directing 
the patient's attention to it^ it will be taken for the 
animal or reptile^ and the language and action will 
soon evince that it is really considered to be such; 
and^ in some cases^ the subjects of such experiments^ 
cannot^ by any means in their own power^ divest 
themselves of the phantasy. These are surprising in- 
stances of the effect of merely excited imaginatian, 
scarcely conceivable, and yet not uncommon; and 
they are interesting, as plainly indicating the great 
difference between imagination and judgment, or true 
reason; they also throw light on the state of the 
mind in certain forms of insanity. I have repeatedly 
witnessed such experiments as the following: An 
empty glass has been offered to the subject, and it 
has been stated to contain hot brandy and water, 
with a caution not to bum the mouth. The endea- 
vour to swallow the imaginary liquor, has been followed 
by the same catching of the breath, violent coughing, 
and difficulty, as would ensue, on a child, or person 
unaccustomed to such a drink, hastily trying to swal- 
low it. Then, by taking the glass away and immedi- 
ately presenting it, as if containing cold water, at the 
same time cautioning the subject in drinking it, lest 
it produce toothache, or saying something else that 
will call up a vivid idea of the contrast between the 
two liquids, — ^immediately upon endeavouring to drink 
it, all the effects of intense cold have been manifested! 
Once, before a large auditory, upon being asked for a 
particular drink, I presented an empty glass, and 
silently wiUed it to be considered as castor oil. No 
sooner had the subject placed the glass to the lips, 
than it was dashed away and broken to atoms, to the 
no small danger of the parties around; at the same 
time, the exclamation was made, ^^Ah! ifs so nasty*/' 
In these cases the physiological action on the nervous 

3* 



52 SOlfNOLISM AND PSTCHSISlff. 

system was real, although the cause was merely tma- 
gmary. Sometimes these phantastic states aie ex- 
hibited under other names^ and as the result of cer- 
tain manipulations with metals; but, however pro- 
daced, they all belong to the same class, and depend 
upon the same principle. 

By TRANSFER of STATE Or FBBLiNO, is meant, that 
curious effect of reflected action, which is exhibited by 
good mesmeric subjects, in feeling whatever is done to 
the mesmeriser as done to themselves. This I have 
witnessed so often, and under such a variety of cir- 
cumstances, as to admit of no doubt of its correctness. 
Thus, on one occasion, while lecturing, one of the 
audience, to test my assertions, came unawares and 
pricked my leg. I looked round for a moment with 
surprise, and some little indignation; but by the time 
J comprehended the motive of the seeming offender, 
the mesmerised subject felt it, and screamed out 
loudly, saying, ^' that some one had pricked her leg,'' 
and pointing at the same time to the part of her own 
leg, corresponding to that which had been pricked in 
mine. I have got indiriduals to tread on my toes, 
pull my hair, or pinch different parts of the body ; 
and I inyariably found that, with this subject, not 
many seconds would elapse before she would com- 
plain of exactly similar treatment, and refer the pain 
to the exact corresponding part; and sometimes I 
have experienced considerable difficulty in dispelling 
the illusion. While she was thus loudly complaining 
of ideal pain, she was insensible to the reality. She 
has frequently complained of the pain inflicted, when 
it has been pretended to her that her finger was 
pricked, greatly exaggerating the amount of pain 
which such a trifling wound could inflict ; and, at the 
same time, she has evinced a perfect unconsciousness 
to the real pricking of a finger on the other hand, 
to which her attention was not directed ! 

Cerebral lucibitt and clairvoyance complete 
our classification. These states are so purely psycho- 
logical, that they belong rather to the subject of the 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 53 

next chapter; but as they also have a physiological 
character^ I will briefly notice them here. By cere- 
bral LUCIDITY^ I mean^ that peculiar condition of the 
mind and brain^ by which the ludd subjects see ob- 
jects that are around or near them^ by lights or an 
element analogous to lights which they perceive as is- 
suing from the brain^ and quite independent of the 
usual visual organ — ^the eye. In my own case, I have 
seen objects correctly pointed out when the eyes have 
been blindfolded^ and also when placed belund the 
head^ and out of the ordinary range of vision. I have 
seen others, who appeared to possess the feiculty, place 
objects in the direct line of vision, when they wished 
to examine them; and thence I have been led to 
doubt, in such cases, the reality, or, at all events, the 
completeness of the faculty. This is by far the most 
generally useful faculty, as it may be turned to such 
good account in investigating the seat and causes of 
disease. The human body seems as if transparent to 
the truly lucid subject ; and I have frequently availed 
myself of this faculty of lucidity, to discover the nature 
of obscure disease, using my subject as a living stethe- 
scope, to assist my own judgment, just as the astro- 
nomer uses his telescope. Clairvoyance I would re- 
strict to the perception of distant objects or to spirittuil 
matters. Some subjects possess one of these faculties, 
and not another, or one in greater perfection than the 
other; while others appear to possess both equally. 
But I should always be more inclined to believe in the 
faculty of clairvoyance, where I covldsee the faculty of 
lucidity in operation. 

Many most interesting facts, in relation to clair- 
voyance, have been published : of some, there can be 
uo doubt; others appear only to have been imagina- 
tive action, like phreno-mesmerism, or the result of 
mental sympathy. By no means would I have the 
public believe, that all which has been published as 
clairvoyance is really so : or that dependence should 
always be placed on the statements of persons really 
mesmerised, or their advice followed. iSrevious educa- 



54 SOMNOLI8M AND PSTCHEISM. 

tion and association have considerable influence on the 
mesmerised subjects; and if all their vagaries were 
implicity followed^ great mischief would often ensue. 
In Faris^ the most absurd and disgusting quackeries 
have been recommended^ hj real or pretended clair- 
voyants. Besides^ there is reason to fear^ that credu- 
lous persons^ are often made the dupes of artful and 
designing pretenders. 

As a specimen of true clairvoyance^ and also of ike 
uses to which it may be applied^ I extract the following 
case &om the French work before alluded to.* Madame 
Lagandr^^ a married daughter of Madame Planting 
possessed the faculty of clairvoyance, or, as styled by 
M. Chardel, somnambulism. She resided in the 
country, and was not in Faris when the operation was 
performed. She afterwards arrived in that city, and 
was mesmerised by Dr. Chapelain, on Sunday, the 26th 
of April, and consulted as to the stat6 of her mother. 
She said that her mother was very ill, — "that all the 
humours were vitiated ; that there was an e£Fusion in 
the right side of the chest ; a little water in the enve- 
lope of the heart (the pericardium) ; that the liver 
was discoloured on its surface. In two days,^' she 
added, " my mother wiU be dead, in spite of all that 
can be done for her. You will have scarcely any 
power over her to-morrow: she will not have life 
enough to feel you.'' On the Monday, the physician 
visited his patient and found her worse ; and the sur- 
geon, M. Cloquet, was desirous that Madame Lagan- 
dr6 should be mesmerised in his presence, that he 
might hear her statement of her mother's case. This 
is remarkable, especially as shewing the power of vital 
magnetism. "My mother has been very weak for 
some days; she has only lived by the magnetism^ which 
has artificially sustained her ; life is failing/' Do you 
think that we can sustain the life of your mother ? 
" No : she will sink early to-morrow mominff, toUhoui 

* Essai de Paycholog;ie Phy8iolog;iquey par C» Chardd, Conaeiller k la 
cour de Cassatioo, Ancien Deputy de la Seine, &c. Trosieme EditioD. 
Paris, 1844. 



FHENOMBNi^ AND PHYSIOLOGY. 55 

agowy, tpitkout mffermg?^ What are tlie diseased 
parts ? '^ The right lung is shrunken and compressed; 
it is surrounded by a pasty or gluey membrane ; it 
floats in the midst of much water. But it is chiefly 
herCy' said the somnambule, pointing to the inferior 
angle of the shoulder-blade^ " that my mother suffers. 
The right lung respires no longer, it is dead. The left 
lung is sound ; it is by that my mother lives. There 
is a little water in the envelope of the heart.^^ How 
are the abdominal organs ? ^^ The stomach and the 
intestines are sound, the liver is white and decoloured 
at the surface.'^ The physician tried all his powers 
to magnetise his patient on the Monday, but could 
hardly induce sleep. When he again caUed about seven 
o'clock on Tuesday morning, shs hadjitst expired. 

The two doctors were desirous of verifying or dis- 
provinsc the statements of the somnambule, by a post- 
mortem examiaation, and obtained the t^f^con^ 
sent for that purpose. They took for witnesses, M. 
Moreau, secretary to the surgical section of the French 
Boyal Academy of Medicine, and Dr. Dronsart. The 
following is abridged &om the official report of the 
autopsy. '^ Exterior — a yellowish paleness of all the 
body. The wound is three-quarters cicatrized ; its sur- 
fieice presents healthy fleshy granulations. Interior — on 
opening the chest, we found the cavity of the right 
pleura filled with a thick serosity, about two pints in 
quantity. The pulmonary and costal portions of this 
membrane were covered with exudations of a fibrous 
nature, most abundant at the posterior part. The lung 
is greatly pressed inwards, &c. The pericardium con. 
tains about three or four ounces of limpid serosity. 
The posterior face of the heart is lightly reddened, 
and presents many shreds of fibrous exudation, &c. 
The liver is of ordinary volume. The upper face is 
covered with whitish specks, which do not extend be- 
yond the surface of the organ. The gall bladder is 
atrophied, of a whitish colour, filled with biliary cal- 
culi, and contains no bile. The other organs not 
examined/' 



56 tOMNOLIlM AOS P8TCHXI8K. 

From this report^ it is seen, that Madame Lagandr^ 
was quite correct in her diagnosis of her mother's case, 
and could even foresee the time of death. The medical j 
witnesses desired also to hear her statements, and, by ! 
previous arrangement, she was mesmerised a little 
while before the time fixed for the examination, and , 
repeated her statements clearly over again : she was 
then led into an apartment adjoining that where the 
corpse lay, and the door perfectly closed. Here she 
followed, with her mental sight, the bistoury in the 
hands of ^he operator, and said to those in the room 
with her, *' Why do they make the incision down the 
middle of the diest, when the effusion is on the 
right?" 

Application of the anatomy and physiology of 
the BBAiN. Having briefly described the most striking 
features in each class of mesmeric or magnetic pheno- 
mena, we now proceed to seek the ^lutioti of the 
physiology of these states, or, in other words, to seek 
the natural cause of these apparently preternatural 
states. We have seen, that within the skull, there 
are, in reality, two distinct brains, although popularly 
called the brain ; that by the larger brain, or cerebrum, 
we think, feel, and act, and that it is thus the soul's 
medium of conscious intercourse with the external 
world. That by the cerebellum, or little brain, with 
its appendages and nerves, are directed and controlled 
all the involuntary and vegetative functions of our 
bodies. That the brain has an automatic^ or inde- 
pendent action of its own, by which it has the control 
- of the blood circulating within it, and that in the state 
; of sleep, the cortical spherules of the cerebrum collapse, 
or fall together, and the fibres become proportionally 
' compressed ; by which means the blood is prevented 
< entering the finer channels, and thus stimulating the 
' brain to activity ; and that from this state of collapse, 
! and altered circiUation of the blood, arises the uncon- 
sciousness and insensibility of profound sleep. 

The direct effect of the passes, or whatever means 
are employed to induce the mesmeric state^ produces 



PHENOMENA AND PHYSIOLOGY. 57 

9i state of somnolency^ in some respects very similar to 
comfTion sleep, especially to sleep in which dreaming 
prevails ; and the higher stages of mesmeric activity^ 
which are sometimes called sleq) -waking, are akin to 
natural somnambulism. One of the first visible effects^ 
» an inability to open the eyelids, attended bv a feeling 
of drowsiness. This is entirely owing to the partial 
cessation of the activity of the cerebrum^ and the in- 
cipient state of collapse. It is contended^ that mind\ 
is the primary agent in real mesmeric action ; but mind / 
and matter are intimately connected by the medium of 
subtle elementary influences, and the modes used in, 
mesmerising^ act upon these subtle fluids^ and thence] 
upon the condition of the brain; and by this means \ 
the brain assumes the somnolent condition. As the \ 
brain collapses^ there is a gradual indrawing of the 
external senses ; an apparent weight presses down the 
eyelids; the optic nerves are gradually contracted and 
dirawn up^ so that the retina becomes insensible to 
lights and ceases to present an image of outward ob- 
jects to the sensorium. The other nerves of the eye 
act in unison with the nerves of sights and the general 
indrawing causes the eyeball to roll upwards and in- 
wards^ and when this is effected^ all power to perceive 
external things is withdrawn. By referring to the 
engravings and explanations^ it will be seen^ that all the ^ 

nerves concerned in these changes belong to the cere- . , ,/ . ; 
brum; consequently^ their state will change^ just asi*^"^ 
the state of the cerebrum is changed. The first efiect \^^' (* * 
of the change of the state of the cerebrum, is to pro- HcJ ^ . '. 
duce torpor, and that just in proportion to the col- . v. 
lapse. The first observed ^«n^a/ effect in mesmerism, J ' "' 
is a degree of torpidity, which increases with the col- <■»<-' 
lapse, until the sensorium is no longer susceptible of 
impressions from without. Hence arises anasthesia, 
insensibility to pain, or absence of feeling ; which, in- 
stead of being that unlikely, impossible thing, which 
even some medical men have supposed, is really the 
result of B, physical necessity, and cannot be otherwise, 
without altering the conditions that the Creator has 



N y* 



58 BOMNOLISH ANd PSTCHBISH. 

impressed upon the brain. When chloroform, is ad- 
ministered the result is similar; the vapour of the 
liquid, acting in union with the subtle elementary 
fluids connected with the nervous system of the brain, 
produces collapse, and thence insensibility. But this 
vapour may permeate the delicate sphendes, and it is 
not confined in its action to any part of the encepha- 
Ion ; for, although it usually first affects the cerebrum, 
it may, and does sometimes, affect the cerebeUum and 
its appendages, and hence sudden death has ensued. 
Death, in these cases, has been referred to spasm : the 
spasm, as it has been called, was the necessary and ttf»- 
amdaftfe. result of collapse in the cerebellum and its 

^ appendages. But the mesmeric influence extends to 
the cerebral system only, as far as regards collapse, 

\ and hence its freedom from danger. 

The mesmeric ffeep, torpor, or coma, with its accom- 
panying insensibility, is therefore the natural physical 
effect of the changes induced on the state of the cen- 
tres of motion and sensation. The physiological cause 

( of the state of rigidity, or catalepsy, as it is called, has 
been shewn to depend on the change in the direction 

' and attraction of the vital aura, or vital electric cur- 
rent, and thence in the arrangement of the corpuscles 
of the circulating blood. It is highly probable that, 
in addition to that general change in the state of the 
cortical substance of the brain, which has been de- 
scribed, that there are many other minute changes, 
depending on the currents and attractions of the vital 
electric aura, by which a species of inverted action, or 
confused condition of the cerebrum, is produced, that 
admits of an inner and imaginative action of the sen- 
sorium, and a sort of intuitive activity of the motor 
nerves, and thence of the muscles. It has been stated, 
that in sleep the cerebrum is collapsed ; or, in other 
words, that the cerebrum sleeps, but not the cerebellum. 
In certain mesmeric states, and in natural somnam- 
bulism, the cerebellum seems more than usually wake- 
ful. Modem physiology attributes to the cerebellum, 
the balancing and control of the locomotive system of 



#» 



FHBNOMBNA AND FHYSIOLOOT. 59 

muscles ; this^ undoubtedly, ia one of its functions ; 
and hence, in artificial and natural somnambulism, we 
find these subjects fearlessly, and, as it were, instinc- 
tively, balancing their bodies in conditions that a per- 
son in the normal state could hardly imitate. It has 
been very truly said, that nearly, if not quite all the 
phenomena of vital magnetism, or mesmerism, have 
been observed as the effect of disease. In natural 
somnambulism, we see a picture of the inner conscious- 
nesSy and inunginative action, which characterises the 
mesmeric states in the second series of our classifica- 
tion ; and many of the undoubted results of somnam- 
bulism, are as extraordinary as anything recorded of 
mesmerism. 

That natural somnambulism essentially depends on 
the condition of the nervous system, every physiologist 
will allow. The great question is, — How is the con- 
dition of the nervous system changed, and what is 
the physiological effect produced on the brain ? That 
by mesmeric and natural somnambulic action, an effect 
is produced on the brain, something analogous to what 
produces r^dity on the muscles, appears highly pro- 
bable. Whether the action is mental or mesmeric, a ] 
new directive force is first given to the subtle impon- 
derable fluids, by which mind and matter are brought ; 
into relation with each other, and thence a change is / 
produced in the condition a,nA fltuxnon of the blood, in ! 
the minute divisions of the sensorium. This may ] 
cause a comparative rigidity in these delicate sub- 
stances ; which, while it admits of a kind of external 
general action, prevents the proper internal activity of 
the sensorial glands. Hence, ^though in the second 
stages of mesmerism, and in somnambulism, an inner, 
or dreaming wakefulness is produced^ still it is only 
such as to admit of an imaginative, and often incon^ 
gruous action ; for true reason or judgment can only 
manifest themselves when the cortical substances of 
the sensorium are free to move individually, and both 
internally and exterwMy, and the fluxion of the blood 
can adopt itself to all their varying states. Seldom, if 



I 



60 8OMN0LIBM AND P8TCHSI8M. 

^ ever, can true reason be predicated of the sayings and 
/ doings of a mesmeric subject ; even in the higher 
stages of clairvoyance, judgment is partiaUy in abey- 
ance : but this belongs rather to psychology than phy- 
siology. 

The physiology of those mesmeric states which dis- 
play the effects of sympathy , are clearly referrible tc 
the directive force of the vital electric currents; thi 
psychology will be considered in the next chaptei 
Here there is a striking analogy to the instruments i 
the opposite ends of the telegraphic wires. But thei 
is this difference, that reason or judgment is only 
one end of the communication. The active wakel 
cerebrum of the operator, dominates, or rules, the cei 
brum of the subject, and this because they form pa 
as it were, of the same electric circle ; and thus, 
though two persons, in feeling and sympathy, yet^ 
to the action of the cerebrum, they are one. Hex 
however many may be the subjects, if they have 
been mesmerised by the same operator, and are 
juUy susceptible of the somnolent influence, they 
all so intimately blended with him, that the absc 
of their own proper cerebral consciousness, causes t 
to feel his cerebral consciousness as their own. If 
is inflicted on the operator, they feel it ; if he intc 
thinks on a subject, they reflect the idea, whicli is 
to them, and hence we behold all the curious 
amusing effects of phantasy. The manifestatic 
phreno-mesmerism may also be traced to the 
influence. When there is no touching of the 
the psychological action in the operator cause 
physiological result, and the connecting sympa 
medium accounts for all the rest. All that is rec 
is, su£Gicient susceptibility in the subject. Sy this 
we may also account for the attraction often disp 
When the operator, either by the silent operal 
his will, or by drawing passes, gives a directive 
to the current, the impression on the cerebrum. 
subject is such, that he is irresistibly compel 
foUow. All these states, therefore, how^ever 



PHENOMEKA AND PHT8I0L06T. 61 

depend solely on the differing condition of the cert* 
brum in the operator and his subjects^ and the directwe 
force of the connecting imponderable medium. That 
there is no real attraction is evident ; for although the 
subject cannot remove his open palm from a wall 
against which the operator has fixed it ; stilly by no 
means can a substance^ not adhesive^ be made to ad- 
here to the hand^ when it is extended^ and the sub- 
stance placed underneath: to make the hand retain it, 
the fingers must be bent. It is a mere trick to ex- 
hibit such things as a real attraction; they are the 
result of phantasy and directive force combined. 

We shall generally find^ that although sight and 
feeling are withdrawn^ the subject retains a perfect 
capability of hbabing. He may be so indrawn^ as to 
evince no perception of sounds — similar^ in this re- 
spect^ to a person engaged in deep thought. But by 
patiently persevering until the attention is excited^ 
or the desire of the operator is felt^ we shall rarely 
fail in demonstrating that the sense of hearing re- 
mains. I have heard of subjects that could only hear 
their magnetizer; but I have not seen any such. By 
a second inversion of tKe^directive current^ which I 
have observed when a clairvoyant has been sent away 
to seek a distant object^ the power of hearing by the 
ear is for the time absent ; but even then, sounds may 
be conveyed by speaking, to the hand^ in the direction 
of the current. These facts may be thought to miU- 
tate against the theory of cerebral action I have en- 
deavoured to demonstrate, but in reality, they tend to 
confirm it. For the nerve of hearmg, which is a branch 
of the seventh pair of cranial nerves, has its roots in 
the corpora resttformia, which is directly connected 
with the cerebellum ; and hence it is^ that affections of 
the cerebellum so frequently affect the organ of hear- 
ing. Sight is solely under the direction of the cere- 
brum, and we can exert that faculty, or not, at our 
pleasure : but we cannot help hearing, if we are within 
the influence of sound : that is, by no organism con- 
nected with our ears can we shut out sound. The 



\ 



62 SOXNOLItM AMD PITCHSIflM. 



ears of a person in deep aleep^ are still open to the 
modulations of the air, on which sound depends ; but 
the dormant state of the oerebnun prevents the con- 
scious perception of sound, unless it is ao loud as to 
rouse the entire system, or produce that state of par- 
tial wakefulness on which dreaming depends. And 
we have already shewn that the inner consciousness 
and wakefulness of a mesmerised subject, is analogous 
to the state of dreaming. But hearing is not so en- 
tirely dependent on the cerebellar system as the inter- 
na/ involuntary Amotions ; but is of a mixed nature 
like the function of respiration, and is so far connectec 
with the cerebrum. 

We have thus glanced at the whole physiology c 
the mesmeric or somnolent state, and given a reaao 
for the seeming mystery, and contrariety to our usu] 
feelings and common experience. In proportion \ 
the physiology of the brain is better known, and tl 
laws and conditions of the various imponderable el 
ments are understood, will these phenomena becor 
more explicable, and the theory here propounded, 
either disproved, or received as an exposition of esi 
blished truth. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PHILOSOPHY AND PSTCHOLOOT OF VITAL MAONBTISMf OR MESMERISM 
CLAIRVOYANCE, OR INNER VISION AND TRANCE. 

None of the extraordinary effects of vital magnetism^ 
or mesmeriBin, appear to stagger the general belief so 
much as the different manifestations of clairyoyance 
or magnetic vision^ or, to speak more truly, the in- 
ternal sight, or sight of the soul. To say that a per- 
son can see without the aid of the eye, or by any other 
means than the rays of light reflected from visual ob- 
jects, entering into the pupil of the eye in the usual 
manner, seems like uttering an absurdity, or declar- 
ing the possibility of an impossibility. Yet, strange 
as it may sound to those who have had no experience 
in this matter, there is no one mesmeric phenomenon 
more capable of positive proof, provided the subject 
be really clairvoyant, and the necessary care is taken 
in making the experiment. Of this I have had re- 
peated ocular proof, and have almost daily for some 
months, exhibited proofs of lucidity and sometimes of 
clairvoyance, to patients and others who have profes- 
sionaUy applied to me. If the term seeing is objected 
to> in a case where the eye is not used, perhaps per- 
ception will be admitted as a more suitable word. 
Yet, as far as can be judged, the same, or similar 
sensations, as to form, colour, magnitude, hardness, or 
softness, which we commonly perceive by the eye, are, 
by the clairvoyante with whose powers I am best 
acquainted, perceived directly within the sensorium, 
without any discoverable use of the eye. 

But, before proceeding further, let us carefully ex- 
amine the eye and its Auctions, and when we have 
done so, we shall feel constrained to acknowledge, 
that an internal function of sight, although remark- 
able and unexpected, and generally unknown, is not 



64 80MNOLI81I AND PBTCBEI8M* 

more difficult to explain^ than ordinary mon wbeu 
thorooghly examined. On referring to the hnman 
eye, or any correct representation of it, we shall find 
that it is a hollow ball, filled with three difiEerent 
kinds of fluids, arranged in a determinate order. 
This arrangement is shewn in the engraving No. B. 
In front is a homy transparent lens, the cornea^ 
something like a small watch-glass, to admit the 
rays of light ; behind the cornea is the small cham- 
ber containing the aqueous humour; then a hole 
through the iris, called the piqril, to allow the rays ol 
light from different objects to pass into the interio 
parts of the eye, which they do, after passing throng! 
the small crystalline lens, and the vitreous, or glassy 
looking humour, which occupies the greater part < 
the interior of the globe, and then form an image 
the objects on the delicate membrane called the y 
tina, which is spread out on the back of tbe e^ 
Now up to this point, ordinary vision may be i 
plained on optical principles, and the eye shewn 
be the most perfect optical instrument. But 
moment we attempt to pass beyond the retina, sole 
is at fault. No natural philosopher has been able 
explain, how the optic nerve conveys the image to 
brain. We know that the mind is conscious of 
images formed on the retina, — or, in more fam 
language, of the things seen by the eyes; — bu 
what manner an opaque nervous cord, differing 
parently in no essential particulars from otber i 
ous cords, conveys that impression to the mind, — 
the sensations of the eye, become transformed int 
perceptions of the sensorium, — ^we are entirely 
J rant. One thing, however, is sufficiently evident 
j is admitted by the best physiologists, namely^ tb 
j dinary sight has a psychological basis. 

In speaking, therefore, of clairvoyance^ or in 
sight, we assume no other basis than is necessa 
perfect ordinary vision. The diflPerence is not 
inward sensorium, but simply in the means or 5 
ment by which the same sensoiixun acqixires i i 



PHILOSOPHY AND F8TCHOLOOT. 65 

ceptions. It is the difference of instrument that en- 
ables the sensorinm to rise superior to the common 
la^rs of space. The eye^ is^ as we have already stated^ 
an opticsd instrument^ adapted^ like other optical in- 
struments^ to the natural laws of lights and chiefly dif- 
fering from them^ in possessing a livings self-adapting 
power. It, therefore, sees by light from vnthaut, — 
emanating from some luminous body, revealing thus 
its own form and appearance, and the forms and ap- 
pearances of such other bodies as are sufficiently dense 
to reflect its rays. Our physical sight can thus see 
the remote starry orbs, placed at the distance of per- 
liaps thousands of millions of miles, because the un- 
dulations of light proceeding from them in straight 
lines, can impinge, or strike upon the retina of our 
eyes. Yet, the intervention of any opaque body im- 
mediately shuts out the vision of the object, even if 
placed in close connection with us; so that if our 
penetrating powera of sight were immensely increased, 
whether naturally or artificially, still the rotundity 
and opacity of the earth, would prevent us seeing be- 
yond a certain distance. 

Bat opacity is no barrier to tlie perceptions of the. 
internal sight ; — ^that is, when this internal faculty is 
fully developed, and its subject in a proper state. 
Objects to which the mind may be directed, either'^ 
designedly or spontaneously, wUl be equally visible' 
through doors and walls, as if placed directly before / 
the face. Nay more, speaking from experience, to'^ 
the higher stages of clairvoyance there seems, com- 
paratively speaking, no bounds ; for whether the ob- 
ject sought be in the same house, or town, or country, 
or across the broad atlantic or pacific oceans, it ap- , 
pears to be found and seen with equal faciUty, and to 
be equally near to the internal perception of the tru- 
ly clairvoyant individual. The human body is seen 
as clearly, and its living actions described as plainly, 
as if the external and internal parts were dike as 
liransparent as glass, and this at times, without any 
bodily connection, such as by bringing the clairvoy- 

J 



66 aoMiroLisii and pstcheism. 

c ant and the person to be examined together, but whei 

' many miles have intervened between them. 

But here a marked difference between external am 
internal sight may be pointed out : external sight i 
essentially of a ptuswe character; internal sight s 
essentially active. It is true, a certain degree of a 
tention is necessary in order to our distinctly seein 

' objects^ inasmuch as an object may be directly befo: 
us^ and yet not observed. But the image of the o 
ject is imprinted on the retina, although, from ti 
concentration of the mmd on some other subject, t 
sensation is not perceived. When, however, the mi; 
is unoccupied, we cannot help seeing such objects 
are within the range of vision, the impression is mai 
and the sensation is experienced. Both the light a 
the impression come from without, wholly indepei 

' ant of our volition, and the object may be said 
come to the eye. But in intemal vision, the sight 
it were, goes to the object. The light, or that wl 
to the clairvoyant is analogous to light, is projec 
from within; an active exercise of volition takes pis 

' as the spark flies from the excited electric mach 
so the perception seems, as it were, to seek the 
responding sensation. This active character of 
temal vision I have repeatedly noticed, and the e 
voyante in whom I perceived it, has also said, tha 
her perception, light issued from the brain ; at o 
times, that all things seemed light, but that the 1 
did not appear like either day light, or artificial li 
but something brighter and more intense. Thi 
course, when the faculty was at its fullest state oi 
velopment. 

But we have now arrived at a stage in our enq 
where physiology, as at present known, ceases t 
ford us any information; for physiology as sucli, 
is, as the science of our outward living orgai 
knows nothing of an intemal or supersensual ] 
or of sight that can penetrate alike through o^ 
and transparent substances. To psychology and 
hsophy we must, therefore, look for aid^ in ou 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSTCHOLOGT. 67 

desvour to inyestigate the apparent mystery of this 
ixrteresting subject. 

There is a sort of philosophy which regects as fabul- 
OTQs and conjectural^ all that cannot be demonstrated 
t;o the senses of the observer ; that would reduce man 
t;o an automatic chemical machine^ beginning and 
eaiding in nature ; and would represent the doctrine 
of a human soul or spirit^ as a mere relic of an igno^ 
x-ant and superstitious age, and unworthy of scientific 
enquiry. Reason and observation, especially of the 
liigher phenomena of mesmerism, have led the writer 
to conclude, that the ancient doctrine, both of philo- 
sophy and Scripture, which represents man as a com- 
pound of soul and body, or mind and matter, is the 
true one, and necessary to explain all the facts con- 
nected with human existence. But the soul ought 
not to be considered as a mere phantom, or indivisi- 
ble point. Common observation, to say nothing of 
anatomical research, has taught us that the body is 
not a mere, simple, uncompounded substance, but a 
collection of innumerable parts and organs ; reason, 
founded on another kind of observation, may lead us 
to conclude, that the mind, or spiritual body, as the 
parent and director of the natural body, cannot be 
that simple entity, that abstract nothingness so gener- 
ally represented by metaphysical writers ; but rather, 
that the controller of the animal organism, must be 
itself organized according to the laws of its own pe- 
culiar nature, and capable of manifesting those laws, 
under certain circumstances, through those organs of 
the natural body, that is, the brain and nervous sys- 
tem, which are united with it by the law of corres- 
pondent activity and connection. 

The observation of Locke, that " the Scriptures 
were not given to teach men philosophy,^' is con- 
sidered by the writer, of great practical importance, 
inasmuch as it is the converse of this proposition 
which has often led to a conflict between science and 
revelation. But if on any subject revelation and phi- 
losophy may be expected to harmonize, it is presumed 



68 80MN0LISM AND P8TCHBI8M. 

that it would be^ in the a priori declarations of t1 
former^ relative to the constitution of man. It i 
therefore, reverently conceived, that St. Paul spol 
the language of the profoundest philosophy, when ] 
declared, that there were " spiritual bodies, and n 
tural bodies,'^ and that the natural body was the fii 
in its development, and afterwarcb, the spiritual bod 
and when on another occasion, he defined the hum 
organism, as existing here, to be a compound 
"spirit, soul, and body," in this respect giving 
apostolic sanction to the doctrine of the ancient saj 
of Oreece. The language of the apostle is peculia 
applicable to our enquiry, because it proposes j 
such a division of the human organism, as is displa; 
to our physical senses, in the higher stages of n 
merism. The two first terms used by the aposth 
describe the spiritual part of man, are, in the origi 
Greek, pneuma B.nd psyche, and the latter term, wh 
in our version of the Scriptures, is, in the passage 
luded to, translated sotd, is, by the Latin writers, ca 
the " animus," and this term is always used to sig 
the animal soul, as distinguished from the pneuma 
more interior human spirit. 

This declaration of St. Paul's is also suggestive 
fundamental principle, which by sound rational 
quiry, may be found to pervade every departmei 
the Creator's " handy-work ;" namely, that from 
Creator, to the lowest mass of inert matter, t 
exists a cMin of degrees, — a distinct line of dems 
tion between one order of substances and anol 
and one class of organisms and another, — althoug 
the extreme boundaries of each order, it may be i 
cult to distinguish exactly where one series ends 
another begins; and hence, any object of crei 
can only be well and thoroughly studied, by vie 
it in its own degree, and comparing it with objeci 
another degree. But if we confound this distincti 
degrees, our method of investigation will be fa 
and we shall never arrive at a clear and satisfeu 
solution of many important facts ; nor understajii 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOOT. 69 

tMoapus, or connection^ between different orders of snb- 
stsnces. For each degree wiU be found to possess 
Ist^ws or properties peculiar to itself : and if we tran- 
scend the degree of the object of our inquiry^ by ap* 
plying to it qualities^ or properties^ belonging to ano- 
t;lier distinct degree, we may expect nothing but con- 
fiJision and mystery. The connection of the various 
degrees of creation, by which they are formed into an 
iLarmonions whole, is not by continuity, or fimon of 
substance, but by distinct, yet correspondent adapta- 
tion. This may be illustrated by the Leyden jar 
charged with electricity, or the telegraphic wires 
charged with the galvanic fluid. Here there is the 
closest connection between a mineral and metallic 
substance, and certain invisible and imponderable 
elements; and yet there is no continuity or inter- 
mingling of substance, but the line of demarcation is 
everywhere most distinct, even while the union is 
most perfect. The ponderable matters are suitable 
and correspondent bases for the imponderable, but 
their substances are wholly distinct. 

If, in our investigations of material substances, it is 
necessary not to overlook these distinctions, how much 
more so, when investigating the psychical nature of 
man ! By no process can matter be sublimed into 
spirit ; between it and the more inert species of mat- 
ter there may be, and it is highly probable there are, 
several orders, or degrees, of imponderable elements, 
which serve as the neams, or medium of connection; but 
each, while acting together, so as to form one harmo- 
nious, Uving, rational, organism, still preserve their 
individual character. The general law of analogy ob- s 
servable in all things, as well as apostolic authority, ) 
leads also to the conclusion, that spiritual substance I 
may have its degrees as well as material substance ; \ 
and that the laws and properties of a higher degree \ 
may not be applicable to a lower one. But a true * 
philosophy also teaches us, that if spirit is in no degree 
materisd, in the common acceptation of that term, it 
is still no less on that account a truly real and sub- 




70 SOMNOLISM AND P8YCH£l8M. 

stantial existence : — in fact, more truly substanti 
than the granite rock, because more unchanging, mo 
enduring, and more like the primal, eternal, and in 
nite substantiality of the Creator. 

Now, viewing the spiritual organism of man as c( 
sisting of two distinct degrees, which, after the Apos 
we call the pneuma and psych^ ; or, as possessing bot 
spirittMl internal and a spiritual external, forming 
gether, while in this mortal life, the common inter 
of the natural organism; the pstch^, or animus, will 
the connecting medium between the pure interior 
man spirit, and the nervous system of the natural be 
By its connection with the n^ous system of the b< 
it is placed in relation, and correspondent affinity i 
the ethereal, magnetic, and other elements, and i 
aU the kingdoms of outward nature ; while, as a s] 
tual entity, and by its indissoluble union with 
higher spiritual principle, it has, at the same t 
immediate connection with the spirit-world, an 
subject to the laws, and possesses the properties of 
world, which have nothing in common with \ 
space, or fixed and inert matter. Hence it is, tha 
can occasionally witness displays of power, which 
be explained by no merely natural or physiolo 
knowledge, but which receive an easy, rational^ 
satisfactory solution, when man is really seen t 
that which revelation, philosophy, and the staten 
of true clairvoyants declare that he is ; — ^name 
compound of spiritual and natura\ orgamsms, 
mately imited by the exactest correspondence or 
logy. And that, although the lower, or naturs 
ganism, cannot act without the continned influex 
the higher, or spiritual organism, nor can the spi 
organism be developed without the medium o 
natural one ; yet, when developed, the higher orgs 
can act, not only by and through the lower orga 
but even independently, and when disconnected 
it, as is the case in actual death. 

It is this PSYCH^, or animus, — ^this external t 
spirit, — that, fix)m all I have yet learned on the 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 71 

ject, I take to be the true seat of the higher mesmeric 
influence : the psych^^ or animal soul of the operator, 
influences the same external spiritual organic principle 
in the subject; and from the animus, the inflaence 
flows downwardsy to use analogous natural terms, and 
thence aflects the brain and nervous system. Hence, 
it is proposed to call that part of mesmerism, which 
evinces mental and superaensual phenomena, by the 
name of psycheism, or the science of the soul as manU 
fested in nature; while to the lower and physical 
stages, the name of somnolism may be applied, as 
indicative of their sleep-like and dream-like character. 
Now let us notice the psychological change, induced 
in sensitive subjects by the operations of the mesmer- 
izer,— or occurring, as it sometimes does, spontane- 
ously. Here it will be well to have some dear and de- 
flnite idea, of what may be called, the law of ultimatum; 
for it is a common law of our being, that conscious per- 
ception should have its apparent seat in the ultimate or 
extreme of every development. Thus, although it is a 
well established physiological fact, that the true seat of 
all sensation, or the common sensorium, is in the brain, 
and that if a sensory nerve be divided, no sensation 
will be experienced in the part in which that nerve 
ramifies, yet it is weU known that if we prick a finger, 
the pain will be felt where the woimd is inflicted. And 
this is so, because the extremities of the nervous fibrils, 
are the ultimates of that system of which the brain is 
the centre ; and by means of these ramifications, the 
influence of the brain, like life, is omnipresent in the 
body. So, notwithstanding the body feels and acts by 
and through the spirit, yet, our conscious perception, 
in the usual normal conation, is confined to the bodily 
organization ; because, while in the present state, the 
body is the ultimate development of the spirit. When 
death severs the connection between mind and body; 
the ultimate of the immortal man is the psyche or am- > 
mus, and to it are transferred the conscious percep- ; 
tions and sensations; and it is so, because, «from the 
removal or separation of the natural body, the psyche, 



*' N* 



72 SOMNOLISH AND PSTCHEI8M. 

or animus, has become the ultimate, or body of tl 
spirit. It is solely from this differing seat of the co 
scious perceptions, that in our ordinary state, we ha 
no sensatumal knowledge of the spirit-world, or of 
laws. The pstchic, or higher mesmeric state, m 
aptly be compared to partial death, or a partial sq 
ration of soul and body. For it is produced b] 
closing of the common external of our being ; a tram 
of the sensational perceptions from the uUimaie of 
body to the ultimate of the spirit ; and thence, \ 
simply from this transfer of ultimates, arises an a 
kening of the conscious sensational perception of 
inner man, or spirit. All those apparently miracu] 
powers, which we sometimes see, or hear of being 
played by good mesmeric subjects, are, in fact, bui 
result of the psyche, or animus, being so far set 
from the bodUy ultimate, as to enable the spiritual 1 
to act nearly, if not quite, independently of the sei 
organs, and by perception, and in light from an i 
world ; but the connection of the mind and bo 
. yet sufGlcient, to enable the souFs sight and feeli 
/' be manifested to our physical senses, by and thi 
' / the natural organization of a clairvoyant subject. 

From this transfer of consciousness and sensa 
perception, we may also account for the anom 
^d often incongruous, statements and deacripti. 
clairvoyants. Judging from my own experiei 
woidd seem that they forget much of tkat in< 
speaking of things, which is common to our ex 
condition, but which, in itself, is often purely ar1( 
and conventional ; and they speak according tc 
newly-awakened and uninformed consciousnes 
we have to learn to talk, and. even to see, or : 
rightly to interpret what the eye reveals, so, it 
appear, do clairvoyants require a continued e 
of their peculiar powers to familiarize them ^ii 
use. 

We now proceed to explain the manner in 
the influence of the operator is brought to bea 
his subject, and that sometimes, unconsciously 



PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 73 

mesmeiizer^ and when some distance has intervened. It ^ 
is a law of nature^ that aU things should he surrounded 
by an effluvium^ or atmosphere^ which emanates from 
them^ and is always of the peculiar nature or quahty 
of the hody from which it emanates^ and these effluvia 
are regulated by certain definite laws. Thus the fra- ^ 
grance which surrounds the rose, is the effluvium, or 
atmosphere, emanating from it; this effluvium, by 
being dissolved in the surrounding »riaL atmosphere, 
becomes sensible to our organs of smell, and an idea 
of its existence and quaUty is then transmitted to our 
general sensorium. But there are effluvia of which we 
should for ever remain ignorant, did we not rationally 
perceive them by their effects. Thus, around mag- 
netized and unmagnetized iron, an effluvium, or at- 
mosphere, prevails, of which, in their separated state, 
our senses give us no evidence. But we have only to 
bring them into such proximity, as to be within the 
influence of the law regulating the activity of their re- 
spective atmospheres, and their existence may be in- 
stantly perceived in their mutual attraction and co- 
herence. And it has been shewn by one of the pro-N 
foundest philosophers of the last century, some of-, 
whose scientific statements are yet in advance of the '^ 
present time, that these single spheres have the pro- 
perty of blending into one larger sphere, and that 
hence arises, what is called magnetic attraction. 

One of the revealments of the higher stages of 
clairvoyance, or independent internal sight, is the 
knowledge, that an effluvium, or atmosphere, analogous 
to what has been alluded to, surrounds the mental 
organism, or spiritual body of every individual. Pol- 
lowing the general law of nature, this sphere possesses 
the peculiar mental qualities of the organism from 
which it emanates. And hence arises the repugnance 
which is felt to the society of some persons, and the 
pleasure which is experienced in the company of 
others, and to it are referable all the remarkable in- 
stances of SYMPATHY and ANTIPATHY, SO frequently 
observed. In these ordinary cases, the active cause 

4 



74 80MN0LIBM AND F8TCHBI8M. 

is latent or hidden ; bnt in the higher mesmeric, < 
rather psychic state^ it often becomes sufficiently o 
vions^ even to our physical senses : for we may he 
see, that similar to what we hare said of terrestr 
magnetism, there is an actual blending of spher 
The magnet induces its quality or state on the ir< 
so that it becomes magnetical; and the operator 
duces his sphere on his patient or subject, so that 1 
subject becomes, as it were, one body with himself 
the egoism or self-consciousness of the one, be 
blended with the egoism or self-consciousness of 
other. 

Here, then, is the psychological cause for thephy 
logical state already mentioned. The change of s 
induced on the animus of the subject, whether by 
manipulations of an operator, or spontaneously, is 
primary catise of the change in the condition of 
cerebrum ; the collapse of the cerebrum closes th( 
temal consciousness, while the union of the spl 
emanating from the animus of both operator and 
ject, causes the latter to perceive, as in himself, 
really is felt in the active cerebrum of the foi 
And this change of state affords, I believe, the 
psychological solution of the whole apparent my 
of Phantasy, and many other carious mesmeric 
nomena. As regards phreno-mesmerism, the aro 
into activity one particular organ of the brain, 
would be called by one class of phrenologisi 
faculty of the mind, as perhaps it would be call 
another class, without the guidance, control, 
lancing powers of the other organs or facultiei 
sufficient reason for the effects we see displayed 

But although the transfer of consciousness, ai 
blending of the issuing spheres of the operate 
subject, will account for many curious and otb 
inexplicable phenomena, it does not account foi 
pendent clairvoyance. Nor do I think it can 1 
sonably accounted for, but on the grounds s 
intimated ; that is, from the awakening of tlie 
tional consciousness of the external of tlie im 



PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 75 

body ; or, in other words, from the activity of the 
psyche or animus. Attempts certainly have been 
made to explain these phenomena, without any refer- 
ence to the soul or spiritual part of man. One writer 
would account for them by a series of hypotheses 
which would overturn the Newtonian theory of philo- 
sophy altogether, and substitute, for well-ascertained 
facts, certain baseless assumptions; another would 
solve it by an imaginary change of poles in the circuit 
of the nervous currents, and the transfer of the func- 
tions of life from the animal to the organic system. 
That there is a real change in the currents of the 
body, of which these writers were unaware, will be 
shewn in the sequel; also, that something analogous, 
perhaps identical, with polarity is displayed by these 
vital currents. But while these facts are useful in 
elucidating the physiology of these abnormal states, 
they shed no real light on the psychology. Besides, 
according to the latter theory, the lower orders of 
animal life, such as the molliMca, and other tribes,, 
which possess only a ganglionic system of nerves, and' 
are wholly deficient of brain, and the animal and 
sensitive system of nerves, are virtually considered as 
superior to man, and endowed with more extended ' 
psychological powers; inasmuch as it is supposed, that 
the abeyance of the frinctions of the brain and sensi- , 
tive system of nerves, and the transfer of similar, but ' 
more extended powers, to the ganglionic system, is 
the reason for the super-sensual powers we see exhi-) 
bited. Thus, according to this theory, man is tobe( 
spiritually elevated, by being degraded to the lowest \ 
forms of organic life. 

The great difficulty hitherto experienced in arriving 
at a. knowledge of the real cause of clairvoyance, has 
arisen, principally, from three causes. Firstly, the 
very little true idea of the nature of the human soul, 
which generally obtains, arising from the darkness and 
mystification of materialism and metaphysics : second- 
ly, firom the different states of the clairvoyant subject 
and the observer, and hence, the impossibiUty of their 



70 SOMNOL19M AND P8YCHEI8M. 

having the same sensational perceptions; so that tl 
observer cannot sensationally perceive how the clai 
voyant sees^ nor can the clairvoyant adequately A 
scribe his perceptions ; and upon the return to t 
normal state^ the ordinary mesmeric extatic has 
recollection of anything that has transpired in 1 
abnormal state. And thirdly^ the necessity for i 
opening of a higher degree of consciousness, in on 
fully to comprehend the lower. For instance. 
aniLd has not, nor can it have any proper idea of 
own nature : but man is enabled^ by the possession 
an internal spiritual principle, rationally and sen 
tionally to investigate his natural body. And 
mere induction of the faculty of clairvoyance^ does 
enable the possessor of that faculty sensatumalh 
perceive the cause of that phenomenon ; this requ 
the awakening of a higher, or more interior consci< 
ness, than that of ordinary clairvoyance, though 
probably belonging to the psyche, or animal pai 
the spiritual organism. But in this respect I 1 
had an advantage over most other enquirers, in 
sessing a subject, who, in addition to the ordi 
induced mesmeric extasis or trance, has repeat 
been in states of spontaneous extasis, of a far Iii| 
and more interior character, and the reality of 1 
/ states has been proved to me by the most convii 
evidence. 

There is a striking and characteristic diffei 
between the ordinary mesmeric trance, and the 
of spontaneous extasis, as regards the memory. 
every man possesses two memories, an internal ai 
external, is sufficiently obvious from the gener 
suits of mesmeric investigation, and the same ps 
logical fact, is sometimes witnessed as the occai 
result of disease, or morbid cerebral afifections 
some observers, the phenomenon has been 
double consciousness. In the normal wakeful 
these two memories act as one, so that the impre 
made on the common sensorium, are also incip 
on the inner memory. Hence, what is known 



PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY, 77 

wakeful state^ can be remembered in the internal 
psychic state. But the impressions made on the 
inner sensorium of a subject in the psychic state^ or 
state of mesmeric trance/ are^ as observed above^ not 
remembered, and are in fact totally unknown, when 
the subject returns to the normal state. The reason 
is, because from the collapse of the cerebnmi, and 
consequent closing of the perceptions of the common 
external sensorium, there is no capability in the ex- 
ternal sensorium, or what amounts to the same, in 
its ultimate organization, the brain, to receive and 
retain the impressions. But if the subject is again 
thrown into the inner, or psychic state, the impres- 
sions of a former psychic state are remembered; 
shewing, that they are impressed and remain on the 
inner sensorium — or inner consciousness. 

In the SUPERIOR state, as Davis, the American 
clairvoyant, calls it, or true spiritual extcLsiSy both the 
internal and external' memories are active: but, from 
my own observation, the operations of both memories 
appear to be of a very interior kind, and the impres- 
sion on the external memory is madeyrom tvithin, and 
seems less permanent than the usual external impres- 
sions from without. Owing to this opening, as it were, 
of both memories, the extatic subject can recollect in 
the normal state, the impressions and sensations of 
the abnormal state ; and, at the same time, possesses 
a sufficient consciousness of the great difference be- 
tween these states, so as not to confound the percep- 
tions and knowledges of the one, with those of the 
other ; especially, if assisted in this discrimination by 
those in the normal state, who may have been wit- 
nesses of the trance. It does not, however, appear to 
rae, that the external memory of the extatic, has any 
of the ordinary connections with external things. 
The opening of this more interior degree, enables the 
extatic subject to perceive many things unknown to 
ordinary clairvoyants, and hence to learn the causes 
of some of the more common phenomena j and during 
these states, I have endeavoured to obtain some know- 






>> 



78 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHBI8M. 



ledge respecting the law and mode of mental assoda- 
tion and connection. 

One remarkable revealment of this superior state, oi 
spontaneous extasis, is, that every man while in tliis 
mortal life, is, by the very laws of his being, and 
hence, of course, by the design of the Creator, in- 
timately, though unconsciously, associated with the 
spirit-world; so much so indeed, that his spiritual 
organism, may be said to be in that world, although 
by its connection with the natural organism, it ap 
pears to be, and is to our sensual perceptions, whoU^ 
located in the world of nature. There is a genera 
connection with the spirit-world, and a particula 
association by such individual spiritual beings as ai 
more directly in harmony with the state of the ma 
Every man has, what may be styled his associate spir 
something probably like the good Daimon of Socrat< 
or it may be, what the Scriptures represent as mai 
attendant angel.* The spiritual world is thus, not 
be sought in the distant fields of space, but it and 
Creator is as near to us fiere, as it would be, could 
transport ourselves to the Milky Way, or to the : 
thest space yet explored by Lord Rosse's gigai 
telescope. In forming an idea of the spirit-world 
laws and appearances, we are to consider stats 
mode of existence, rather than space or time ; an^ 
cultivating this way of thinking, we may form i 
just conceptions of the nature and omnipreseiK 
the Deity. 

Another singular revealment is, that in the s] 
world, there is, as it were, a reflection, of tlie s< 
and transactions of this world; or, to speak more « 
fically, in the memory and ideas of the assoc 
spirit may be seen, by spiritual or ment al sigh.1 
counterpart of the associated man. While the 
and state of the spirit-world, having no referei 
the fiofed properties of matter, permit the sub^ 
ideas and active thoughts of spiritual beings to I3 
objective, and thus, the sensible exponents of 

* See Matt xvUi. 10. 



PHTSIOLOGT ANB FSTCHOLOQT. 79 

affections and perceptions. Hence such things a43 
oould only be known in the natural worlds by oral or 
innitten communication^ confession^ or description^ 
are objects of open vision in the spirit- world. 
- A trtie clairvoyant may be defined to be one^ who^ 
by the opening of the internal comcumsness, or spiri- 
tual sight, whether induced by any operation, or oc- 
curring spontaneously, has, while in that state of in- 
ner consciousness, and according to the degree of its 
development, a sensational perception of the objects of 
the inner, or spirit- world. Where this development 
does not exist, the state is simply that of natural 
clairvoyance, or cerebral lucidity. Some subjects ap- 
pear to possess the faculty of spiritual clairvoyance ; 
others, that of lucidity ; while some few individuals 
have exhibited both faculties. If the attention of a 
true clairvoyant, is directed to any distant individual, 
and the rapport, or connection between them, made 
stronger, by using the hair or writing of the individual 
sought, or sometUng else identified in some measure 
with his mind or body, a>8 the connecting medium, there 
are two ways in which the parties may become men- 
tally present with each other. Firstly, the clairvoyant 
comes by the rapport with the man, into connection 
with the associated spirit; and then, from the reflection 
of memory, and from what may be called the living 
phmta»aJ^,ma of the spirit-world, the man and hk 
affairs, and perceptions, and recollections, are laid open 
to the clairvoyant's inner vision. And as, from the 
proximity of the spirit-world to the mind, the associ- 
ated spirit will be equally near, whether the man may 
be in the next street, or in another hemisphere, the 
distance of the object sought will make no difference 
to clairvoyant inquiry. Secondly; as man, even in 
this mortal life, is internally a true spiritual organism, 
and as such, is, as we have observed, a subject of the 
laws of the spirit-world, the spirits of aU men, as deni. 
zens of the spirit- world, may be equally near to each 
other, according to their respective states, no matter 
how far apart their natural bodies may be ; and the 



80 F8TCHSI8M AND 80MNOLI8M. 

clairvoyant, in whom the proper state is induced, ma] 
come into sensational correspondence with the spiri 
of the man, and thence with his natural organism am 
memory, wherever he may bodily be* present: ye! 
still, it is probable, that the direct connection, is med\ 
ately effected by the associated spirit. 

Which of these two modes of connection is tli 
more common one, appears to the writer, aiter muc 
experience, difficult to determine. So complete 
counterpart of the man, and the scenery by which 1 
is surrounded, appears to be afforded by the ass< 
ciated spirit, and the surrounding objective appea 
ances, that the clairvoyant, having no means of con 
parison, owing to the closure of the external sensoriui 
may mistake the associated spirit for, and take it 
be, the real man. But the general vividness of t1 
perception, and the constant, and frequently une 
pected description of natural objects , rather inclin 
the writer to conclude, that the connection is dire 
and that the wJiole man, both as to spirit and body, 
thus brought before the inner vision. But the adna 
sion of these psychological causes, does not preclu 
the possibility of there being some subtile, materi 
elementary connection, between the nervous system 
the clairvoyant and that of the distant individual ; 
something analogotts, probably, to the odylic force 
Reichenbach : and this connection may be induced 
the action of the mind of the clairvoyant on the mi 
of the distant, party, by which, as from an elect 
battery, a current may be set in motion, analogous 
the currents passing along the telegraphic wires ; I 
having this essential difference, that there is onli 
sensational perception at one end of the communi* 
tion. This, then, appears to be the simple, ration 
yet deeply interesting solution of the psychologi 
cause of the certain facts of distant clairvoyance. 

There remains to be considered, the psychology 
what is above called, cerebral lucidity ; that is, i 
power of distinguishing natural objects by an inter 
perception, independent of the usual visual orga 



PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 81 

and even where opaque substances intervene. How 
the impression of outward objects is conveyed to the 
sensorium^ is one of the most diflScult problems con- 
nected with our inquiry : the fact, that such is the 
case, cannot be doubted by any one who has had suf- 
ficient opportunity carefully to examine the subject. 
The difficulty arises, from the clairvoyant being unable 
to analyse the mode of vision, and point out its modus 
operandi ; and the impossibility of an individual in the 
normal state, sensationally realizing the feelings or 
perceptions of a clairvoyant. We may, perhaps, ob- 
tain a more correct idea, by attending to the process 
by which the mind becomes cognizant of external 
things by means of common sight. 

In ordinary vision, the mind does not directly be- 
hold the outward visible object, but it has Siperception of 
that object as existing in the imagination. By imagi- 
nation is not here meant mere fancy, as is sometimes 
done when that term is used, but the image-forming 
faculty y or the general power of the sensorium to form 
images tvithin itself, of objects that are without itself 
Imagination is, therefore, considered as a true and 
proper faculty of the psyche, or animal mind, and 
thence, as a distinct mode of sensation above the ordi- 
nary senses of the body, and to which they are sub- 
servient. For it is by the outward senses, which de- 
pend on nervous influence, and their connection with 
this image-forming faculty, that mind and matter are 
brought into mutual relationship and connection. 
Whether, therefore, it is by ordinary sight, by cere- 
bral lucidity, or by the suggestions of another's mind, 
that the ideas of the objects are transmitted to the 
sensorium, they are alike subjects of the image-forming 
f acuity when there, and, as subjective perceptions, they 
are equally real. I have partially demesmerised my 
principal subject, when in a state of lucidity, so as to 
restore the normal conscious state, without demesme- 
riziug the eyes, which remained up-turned and closed, 
and incapable of ordinary vision. By this means a 
consciousness of a super-sensual state was produced. 



82 80MNOLI8M ANJ> FBYCHSI8M. 

and every object was then said to be seen in a most 
brilliant lights altogether different to common lights 
whether solar or artificial ; and^ at the same time^ all 
the sorrounding objects were seen, at once, as if united 
by this flowing light, and yet, a sense of their separate 
identity remained. Generally, the objects appeared 
greatly magnified, and brilUant; all which seems 
to indicate, that the independent action of the sen- 
sorium produces more yivid images of the objects im- 
pressed upon it ; and this might be expected, &om the 
exaltation of the sense, arising from the opening of 
the perceptions of a higher ultimate. This kind of 
experiment has not been very frequently repeated, 
owing to the clairvoyante experiencing some slarm at 
the novelty of her situation, and a fear on my part 
lest any injury should be done to ordinary vision. 
From this, and other experience, it appears that the 
light, or that sensation which to the clairvoyant is 
light, issuing from within, awakens the perceptions of 
the image-forming faculty, and theace transmits to 
the mind a picture of the objects beheld. At the 
same time, it is highly probable, from the results of 
many inquiries, that the light issuing from within, 
uses some ethereal element as a basis, and that by 
this means the natural object becomes perceptible to 
the mental sight. 

It will form no objection to our general statements 
of the spiritual nature of man, that brutes possess an 
image-forming faculty, and hence, it may be con- 
cluded, something analogous to the human animus. 
There is little doubt, but that all animals possess 
something of the nature of a soul, and that hence 
they have their peculiar psychological developments. 
But they want the Pneuma — the purely spiritual and 
rational essence, which gives man his essential cha- 
racter, and by which he is enabled to contemplate his 
Maker, and from which he derives his title to immor- 
tality. This, however, is not a subject for discussion 
in these pages, and the writer would only further re- 
mark, that he was not a little surprised to find one of 



PHTSIOLOOT AND PSYCHOLOGY. 83 

our most popular and best physiologists^ using the 
terms of the Apostle^ and yet in a sense just opposite 
to that of the inspired writer; for he attributes to 
animals the possession of a pneuma, and to man the 
supposed higher faculty of the psyche, — ^thus exactly 
reversing the Apostle^s statements. 

In concluding this part of our inquiry^ the author 
would respectfiilly suggest^ that a calm investigation 
of tlie psychical phenomena developed by mesmerism^ 
instead of leading to a denial of Christianity^ or to such 
superstitious andchildish notions^ as^ that the witnessed 
results are the effects of a presumed satanic influence^ 
would produce an exactly contrary effect; and that the 
knowledge thus acquired^ may become of great use in 
furthering the interests of religion and morality. By 
this means we may demonstrate^ that there is an in- 
ternal way to the mind^ as well as the usual external 
way of the outward senses. This^ though admitted by 
beUevers in the authority of the Holy Scriptures^ has 
been generally denied by an influential class of writers. 
The psychical phenomena of mesmerism and trance^ tend 
also to confirm and illustrate some of those striking 
and interesting Scripture narratives^ which have been 
so often assailed by scepticism and infidelity ; they 
present man to us^ both in his relation to the spirit- 
world and the natural world ; being, even while taber- 
nacling in mortal fleshy as to his interior^ mental, or 
spiritual organism, in direct communication with a 
spiritual world, and thus capable, by the very laws of 
Us being, of r^eiving influences fiom God, and spiri- 
tual intelligences ; while, by his material organism, he 
is constituted in direct relation to all outward things. 
Man is thus presented to us just in the light we might 
expect, considering that he is the crowning work of 
the Great Creator's skill : for we may see, that he is 
really and truly, that link in the great chain of crea- 
tion, which Gk>d has made to join heaven to earthy and 
earth to heaven ! 



CHAPTER V. 

PAmnCULAR MS8MBRIC VXPKRIBNCB. — CA8B OP B. h. 

In the foregoing chapters^ while treating of the physi- 
ology and psychology of mesmerism, regard has been 
had to general phenomena, as noticed by different ob- 
servers, but with more especial reference to the writer's 
own observations. The following chapters will record 
some portions of the author's experience with his, 
now tolerably well-known subject, " Emma/' Since 
the publication of the first edition of this work, her 
power, or gift, has been publicly attested, and has 
proved, in some cases, of eminent use. Still there 
are matters, or reveahnents, connected with her 
statements, that are incapable of ordinary proof: of 
these, the chief are, those relating to the laws and 
scenery of another life. With respect to such state- 
ments, the writer wishes only to assume the character 
of a faithful reporter y presenting to the reader a true 
picture of what he has repeatedly observed ; neither 
withholding such particulars as may occasion a Saddu- 
cean smile, nor, on the other hand, garnishing them 
to suit any particular theory or religious belief. The 
sensitive reader will find no cause for alarm, as nothing 
of a dogmatic or doctrinal religious nature is intro- 
duced ; and the revealments, if they may be so called, 
are in harmony with the hopes and feelings of the 
wise and good of all ages, and all creeds, who have 
pleasingly anticipated a land, — 

'* Where e^erlastiDp spring abides, 
And neyer-withering flowers." 

E. L., the young woman who is the chief subject of 
the following notes, is a native of Worcestershire. She 
is about five feet two inches ixi height, rather sallow 
complexion, and of a nervous*bilious temperament. 



MESM£BIC EXPERIENCE. 85 

Her health, although now tolerably good, is not ro- 
bust, nor is she capable of much continued exertion. 
Towards the end of the summer of 1846, she entered 
my house in the capacity of a domestic servant. A 
few years before this, she had been the subject of inflam- 
matory disease of the chest, and of fever; and not long 
previous to her arrival in Bolton, she had been an in- 
mate of the General Hospital, Birmingham, on account 
of an injury received in the knee. The treatment there 
had reduced her general health, but improved her 
knee; and she was in this state when I first saw her. 
Her head is well formed, and largely developed, in 
proportion to the size of her face and person. Mons. 
Bally, the practical phrenologist and anatomical 
modeller, of Manchester, saw her in July, 1848. He 
said that her head was well formed, and that her 
faculties only wanted cultivation. He did not appear 
to be able to assign any phrenological cause for her 
peculiar faculty; and the only individual remark he 
made, had reference to the organ, or region, of firm- 
ness. I was desirous that he should see her, because 
in a somewhat similar case, another well-known phre- 
nologist had ascribed all the recorded phenomena to 
the workings of an over-grown organ of wonder, or 
marvellousness. Before the time about to be referred 
to, she was wholly ignorant that she possessed any pe- 
culiar mesmeric susceptibilities. She has since ex- 
pressed an opinion, that the extraordinary condition 
of her brain, is the result of a very large dose of opium 
which she once took by mistake, and which, for a day 
or two, occasioned very serious symptoms. But this 
may be considered as very doubtful. She completed 
her twenty-fourth year in December, 1850. She will 
be constantly referred to by the name of Emma. 

Towards the close of the autumn of 1846, my atten- 
tion, in common with that of medical men generally, 
was directed to the action of the vapour of ether in 
obUterating the sense of pain, — ^it having been then 
recently brought into public notice for that purpose. 
Before that time I had seen the vapour of ether used 



y 



86 80MNOLI8M AND PSTCHBISM. 

as a tnlMtitate for the nitric oxide, or laoglimg-gasy and 
had noticed the intoxicating and exciting effects it pro- 
duced; butj like others, I was ignorant that it blunted, 
and, in some cases, entirely removed the sense of pain. 
Hearing me talk of the effects of ether, Emma said, 
that a cousin of hers had ''mefftimseif' her and 
another young woman with ether, which they ''sucked'' 
out of a bottle ; indeed she called it '' The MernneriseJ' 
Being anxious to test the truth of the reports then in 
circulation, I asked her if she had any objection to 
let me see her inhale some of the vapour? She re- 

Elied — *^ None at all, for she had no fear of it hurting 
er.'' I, therefore, fitted-up a common Winchester 
quart bottle, merely by putting a piece of brass tubing 
through the cork, which went half-way down the 
bottle, and two or three inches above it. About half 
an ounce of sulphuric ether was put into the bottle, 
and the bottle well shaken to mix the vapour with the 
contained air ; I then gave it to her, and told her to 
pat the pipe to her mouth, and gently draw in the 
air in the bottle, without my closing her nose, or 
using any of the valvular apparatus then in use. In 
less than five minutes I observed that her hands b^an 
to loosen their hold of the bottle, which I then re- 
moved; the pupils of her eyes became dilated, and 
presently the eyelids closed. She was now found to 
be insensible to pain ; or rather, to evince no sense of 
feeling, which was ascertained in various ways ; such 
as pinching and pricking various parts of the body, 
endeavouring to excite tittilation, and even by thrust- 
ing pins under her finger nails; but she did not evince 
the slightest consciousness of these experiments; on 
the contrary, she was soon in a merry mood, and fan- 
cied herself to be among her old companions in her 
native place, rambling through fields, and performing, 
as she supposed, many rural and domestic occupations. 
She would laugh, dance, sing^ and do many things 
which were suggested to her; but, when aroused, she 
had scarcely, if any, recollection of what had oc- 
curred. These abnormal states were continued longer 



ME8MEKIC EXPEBIBNOB. 87 

intended, on account of the difficulty experienced 
in. arousing her ; for on one or two occasions, nearly 
txro hours were expended in fully restoring her. Pro- 
iMkbly, had I then been aware that she was really in a 
mesmeric state, and known how to perform the de- 
xKLesmerizing passes, she might have been restored 
much more easily. 

Other individuals were now tried, but only one was 
found at that time, at all similar to her in susceptibility 
to the ethereal influence, and that was a youth who 
liad been mesmerised by Mr. Spencer Hall, when that 
^ntleman was lecturing in Bolton. The same bottle, 
in like manner, with about half an ounce of ether in 
it, was given to him, and in five minutes he became 
insensible, and then exhibited similar phenomena to 
Emma, but not so striking. He talked and acted, and, 
like her, imagined himself to be in another place than 
where he really was, and in about half an hour he spon- 
taneously awaked. Subsequently, I had many opportu- 
nities of trying the effect of the ethereal vapour with a 
proper apparatus, and witnessed various degrees of 
narcotism; sometimes strong imaginative feeUngs; 
but never anything so truly mesmeric as in the case 
of Emma. 

Having noticed Emma's susceptibility, I graduaUy 
reduced the quantity of ether, until at last there re- 
mained only sufficient to scent the bottle. Finding 
that with the bottle in this state I could produce the 
same results, I began to suspect that the ether had 
very Uttle to do with the strange things witnessed, 
but that she was in a manner* mesmerised, or rather 
hypnotised, as Dr. Braid would call it, by her steadfast 
attention in looking at the bottle, while inhaling 
through the tube. It was therefore resolved to try 
another experiment. One evening I told her to sit 
down ; and taking a small pocket-comb desired her to 
look steadfastly at it. She did so ; and in a few mi- 
nutes, as with the bottle, fell into the simple mesmeric, 
or hypnotic sleep. Afterwards, a small magnet was 
used for the same purpose, and with the same results ; 



88 80MN0LISM AND P8YCHEI81C. 

and a few days further on^ I laid aside all instruments^ 
and simply gazed steadfastly at her, desiring her to 
fix her eyes on mine, when she quickly passed into 
the somnolent state. The youth mentioned above, 
was also submitted to a similar experiment, by causing 
him to gaze steadfastly on the poles of a small horse- 
shoe magnet, held a few inches from his eyes. The 
pupils soon dilated, the eyes mechanically followed 
the movements of the magnet, and presently the lids 
closed, and he passed into the somnolent, or mes- 
meric, state. In both cases, results were obtained 
similar to those following the use of ether ; namely, 
insensibility to pain, and a sort of somnambulic wake- 
ful dreaming. The only difference yet perceptible be- 
tween the effects of ether and those resulting from 
hypnotizing, or mesmerising, was, that by the latter 
mode the limbs could be made rigid, — cataleptic, as it 
is called, — ^while no such rigidity could be induced 
after the inhalation of the ether. Up to this time, 
dancing, singing, and doing various things which were 
audibly suggested, as if they were real, together witli 
rigidity of the limbs, after downward passes, were the 
only phenomena noticed ; and it was thought that the 
statements made by some writers, of the pei'sonal in- 
fluence of the operator over the subject, were merely 
fanciful, and not warranted by fact. 

But, by degrees, it was found that such statements 
were the expressions of truth, inasmuch as Emma gra- 
dually manifested all the phenomena, or nearly all, 
which have been recorded of mesmeric subjects by 
writers of credit. Some time in the summer of 1847, 
while experimenting with her, I accidentally placed 
my hand on the part of the head marked on the busts 
as the organ of veneration ; she immediately began 
repeating the Apostles' Creed: when my hand was 
removed she ceased, and when it was replaced, she 
commenced repeating where she left off. This was 
the first manifestation on her part of the phrenological 
sentiments, and interested me greatly. It should be 
observed, that endeavours were very early made to 



ttSSMEBTC EXPERIENCE. 89 

excite these faculties^ in order to test the trathfulness 
of writers on phreno-mesmerism, but unsuccessfully ; 
and hence, much doubt was entertained of their reality. 
It was some weeks after this first manifestation, before 
any of the other phrenological faculties could be ex- 
cited, notwithstanding repeated trials were made : but 
eventually all the prominent feelings and sentiments 
were easily aroused ; such as, benevolence, veneration, 
firmness, self-esteem, philo-progenitiveness, — most 
powerfully, — acquisitiveness, combativeness, mirth- 
fulness^, &c. Still no proof of any personal influence 
passing from the operator, was observed, but she be- 
came more easily and quickly mesmerised, and as easily 
recalled into the normal, wakeful state. 

It was now found, that Emma would exhibit all the 
usual mesmeric phenomena, such as catalepsy, or 
rigidity of the limbs, for she could be fixed immov- 
ably in any position by the action of a few passes ; 
she could be so far demesmerised as to be restored to 
outward consciousness, and yet be unable to move the 
mesmerised arm or leg. She would also manifest the 
remarkable feature of magnetic attraction, even in the 
same conscious state, as I often had the opportunity 
of shewing to friends and neighbours, who were as 
much surprised as amused. For example, a piece of 
money would be placed on a table in a distant part of 
the room, and it was told her, ^she might have it for 
fetching it. She frequently essayed to do so, and 
would sometimes nearly reach the money; but in- 
variably, my will, and the drawing passes T made to- 
wards myself, overcame her power, and, notwithstand- 
ing her determined efforts to the contrary, would draw 
her to myself, and render all her endeavours to secure 
the money inefiectual. On these occasions, she de- 
scribed the sensations she experienced, as being like 
cords wound round her, and drawing her in spite of 
her endeavours to resist. Considerable experience, to 
which reference will be made further on, has pretty 
well shewn, that there are currents passing through, 
or around the nerves, by which the limbs are moved ; 



00 SOMNOLISM AND rSTCHBISM. 

and that tliese ctinrentf , are^ in sensitiye subjects, under 
the control of the operator, and may be stayed, or ren- 
dered active, irrespectiTe of the yolition of the sabject. 
In the first case, the sabject is unable to move the 
limb, in which the currents are arrested, and the sen- 
Motion ii that of being fijeed to the spot where the 
operator has placed it; bat there is no real juniyj or 
adhesiye attraction, as seen between iron and the mag- 
net. In the second instance, the corrents in the in- 
voluntary, or reflex nerves, are rendered active, and 
propel the sabject, contrary to his inclination. But 
in both cases, it is doubtful if the cerebrum is com- 
pletely demesmerised. 

At this time Emma could easily be made to believe, 
that articles put into her hand, or on her lap, were 
widely different from their true nature. Sometimes 
by the silent operation of the mesmeriser's will, or 
thoughts, she cotdd be led to imagine that a pocket 
handkerchief thrown into her lap, was a snake, or some 
other noxious animal, and she would throw it from 
her, and exhibit evident signs of fear and disgust. 
If she was told the snake, or whatever she had ima- 
gined it to be, should be removed, and the handker- 
chief was withdrawn, and then almost immediately 
replaced, the operator, at the same time, thinking of 
some harmless pleasing animal, such as a rabbit or 
the like, she would imagine the handkerchief to be 
the animal thought of by the operator; and by her 
language and actions, plainly evince that she fancied 
she had the animal on her lap. This is that peculiar 
state, I have called phantasy, because the objects 
which were apparently real to her, were, in fact, merely 
imaginary phantoms, having no existence, but in 
something widely different. The phenomenon is how- 
ever of much interest, as throwing light on what may 
be called the real pkantaemagoria of the spirit-world, 
and the mode by which the subjective ideas of spi- 
ritual beings, may become objective before the mental 
sight of clairvoyance. As Emma increased in lucidity, 
she perceived the fallacy of these imaginative ideas, 



MESMERIC SXPBBIENCB. 91 

for if she was desired to look at the object she held^ 
and slie did so^ by putting it to her forhead^ she eid- 
dently perceived the dehision^ and threw it from her 
T^tli. a feeUng of indignation. This used to be strik- 
ingly eidnced if the organ of philo-progenitiveness 
liad been excited^ and a handkerchief had been given 
lier as a baby ; if told to look at it^ she would dash it 
away ; but the craving of the faculty remained^ and 
slie 'would bitterly complain that her baby had been 
tal^en away from her. Since this period Emma^s 
state has considerably changed. Her increased 
pow^ers of lucidity^ render it more difficult to im- 
pose on her by phantastic images; and^ perhaps^ 
on. tiie whole^ it may be said^ that the awakening of 
liigher powers^ has made her a less interesting and 
more unmanageable subject for the lower and more 
amusing mesmeric experiments. The investigation 
of these ordinary mesmeric states was not confined to 
those exhibited by Emma^ but their truthfulness was 
Turther confirmed in the case of several youths, who 
-wrere experimented upon, both privately and publicly, 
and who exhibited similar phenomena, but modified 
in each case by the general character of the indi- 
vidual. 

After Emma's susceptibilities had become fully 
developed, opportunities frequently occurred for prov- 
ing the reality of a personal influence of some kind, 
either as a current of vital electricity, or some very sub- 
tile imponderable element, proceeding from the person 
of the operator when actively engaged in mesmerising ; 
and also shewing that a highly sensitive mesmeric 
subject may be acted upon, even when wholly un- 
aware of the influence, and even at a distance. Many 
experiments were made to ascertain the truth on this 
point; but I will only mention a few cases that oc- 
curred spontaneously, or rather, which happened 
without my mind being directed to her, or without 
any intention on my part that she should receive the 
influence. 

Once, a gentleman asked me unexpectedly, in a 



92 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHEI8M. 

neighbour's house, several doors from mine, to mes- 
merise him; I tried, but did not succeed. On re- 
turning home, I found Emma in the mesmeric state, 
and, upon enquiry, discovered that she had gone into 
that state while engaged with needle-work, and at the 
time I was endeavouring to mesmerise the gentleman. 
On another occasion, I was wishful to induce the 
mesmeric sleep on a lady, for the relief of a rheumatic 
affection from which she was suffering. Finding the 
continual itare very fatiguing to my eyes, and also, 
expecting to be called away by patients, it occurred to 
me, that if I directed her to look steadfastly at some- 
thing, it might answer the same purpose, and allow 
me to leave her, without interrupting the mesmeric 
action. I therefore arose, and took a small magnet, 
and suspended it by a wire from a hook in the ceiling. 
Emma was in the kitchen, situated under the room 
where I was operating, and knew nothing of my 
movements. In a few minutes the smell of burning 
linen arrested my attention, and I desired my daugh- 
ter to go down stairs and ascertain the cause. She 
called me quickly to come down, saying that Emma 
was on fire ; I ran down, and found her with her eyes 
closed, and mesmerised^ and on her knees before the 
kitchen fire, engaged in sweeping the hearth, and her 
apron on fire from contact with a burning coal that 
had fallen from the grate; but of the fire she was 
unconscious, or, at least, she took no notice of it, and 
her attention was wholly directed to a point in the 
kitchen ceiling, under where I had been sitting in 
the room above. Having asked her what she was 
doing or looking at ? She replied, " I want that 
magnet/' I pretended not to understand her, and 
said. What magnet ? The reply was, " That magnet 
hanging up there,^^ — pointing accurately to its situa- 
tion. I extinguished the fire without saying anything 
to her about it, and led her up stairs, and put her into 
connection with the lady, by joining their hands. 
When she was aroused, she expressed great surprise 
at finding herself in my sitting room, and was quite 



MESMERIC EXPERIENCE. 93 

unconscious how she came there, or of the fire. Upon 
enquiry, I found that she was engaged as above stated 
in the room below me, and that she felt some strange 
sort of influence come over her, and that she knew 
nothing after that until I aroused her. The influence 
from myself, and I have reason to think, from the 
magnet also, passed through the floor and ceiling, 
and affected her unconsciously in the room below; 
and being then lucidly clairvoyant, her attention was 
immediately attracted to the magnet in the room 
above. From the locality of the rooms, and the 
magnet having been used without any previous inti- 
mation of my intention, — in fact, it did not occur to 
me to do so, until the patient had been some time 
seated — Emma could not possibly know of its being 
in tbe situation in which I had placed it, by any 
noTTnal means. Here then, was one, among nume- 
rous spontaneous instances, of the transmission and 
reception of an influence flowing from the operator, 
and also, of the reality of lucid clairvoyance in ena- 
bling its subject to see a natural object, notwithstand- 
ing the intervention of an opaque substance, and with 
the eyes up-turned, and the eyelids closed. 

At another time, when visiting a patient residing 
more than a mile and a half from my house, who was 
suffering fipom delirium tremenSy I was desirous of 
trying the soothing influence of mesmerism, and, in 
tins instance, succeeded in a few minutes. On re- 
turning home, I found that Emma had gone into the 
mesmeric state, at the time I was operating on my 
patient; but fortunately, she was in a situation where 
no harm happened to her, and she awakened sponta- 
neously, before my return. At a subsequent time, a 
poor man, who was subject to epileptic fits, and whom 
I had relieved and since cured, fell down in the mar- 
ket-place in a fit. Some parties who were with him, 
and knew the beneficial influence he had before re- 
ceived from mesmeric passes, brought him to my 
house, which was not far from where he fell; he was 
foaming at the mouth, and followed by a crowd. As 



94 SOMNOLISM AND P8TCHEISM. 

soon as they had seated him^ I commenced making 
passes over him^ especially over what I knew to be the 
chief part affected^ and within a few minutes subdued 
the paroxysm and restored him to consciousness. I 
then thought of Emma^ who was in the kitchen^ and 
knew nothing of the man's being brought to me^ or 
of my mesmerising him, and I found her in the mes- 
meric state from the operation of my influence when 
engaged with the epileptic patient. 
^way of experiment, I frequently mesmerised her 
when in another room^ and unknown to her ; but in 
the above mentioned, and in other cases, I did not 
think of her, and the circumstance can only be ex- 
plained from her known susceptibility, and my being 
actually engaged in exerting a mesmeric influence and 
intention. This extreme susceptibility to my personal 
influence, for a considerable period prevented my 
using mesmerism as a curative agent, inasmuch as I 
feared to exercise the power, unless I knew that 
Emma was in a place of safety, and would be kept 
from danger, in case she became unawares mesmer- 
ised. While in the mesmeric state, before one of the 
trances to be hereafter spoken of, Emma said, that 
after that particular trance, she should not be thus 
dangerously susceptible of my influence, but that I 
might mesmerise other people, without her feeling it, 
unless I intended her to do so. In this, as in other 
matters connected with her own states, I found her 
prognosis correct; and I now can even mesmerise 
in her presence, without her yielding to the influence. 
But she is, I think, quite as susceptible to my influ- 
ence, when intended, and frequently used: and a great 
drawback to mesmeric usefulness is thus removed. 

In the early part of the year 1847, Emma wished 
to have the vapour of ether administered, with the 
view of having an aching tooth removed without pain; 
but the striking effects I had seen follow upon mes- 
merising her, induced me to refuse the ether, and, in 
the evening, to mesmerise her, and thus further test 
the power of the mesmeric sleep to produce anasthesia, 



( 



MESMBBIC EXFSBIBNCE. 96 

as it is professionally termed^ — that is^ the power of 
rendering the sense of feeling dormant. Abiont nine 
o'clock that evenings I desired her to sit down^ in- 
duced the mesmeric sleep^ and then leisurely got the 
necessary instruments; lanced her gum; extracted 
her tooth; as soon as the bleeding was arrested, 
washed her mouth, and then aroused her. The entire 
time from sitting down until fiilly aroused, was just 
fifteen minutes. During the operation she did not 
evince the slightest sensibility; but as soon as the 
remoTal of the instrument gave liberty to her mouth, 
she began to hum a tune, even while the blood was 
flowing. On awakening, she knew nothing of what 
had taken place after going into the sleep, and could 
hardly be persuaded that the tooth on the table before 
her, had been extracted from her jaw! Some time 
afterwards, Mr. Patrick, surgeon-dentist, of Bolton, 
extracted a large decayed molar tooth from her lower 
jaw, under similar circumstances.' She evinced no 
sense of feeling ; but before being mesmerised, she 
desired that only one tooth (for she had several de- 
cayed,) should be removed; and after the removal of 
the tooth, and the withdrawal of the instrument, she 
kept repeating the words " only one/' unconscious that 
the one had been removed. On the latter occasion, 
several friends were witnesses of the operation. She 
still exhibits the same absence of feeling; but her 
lucidity is, in this case, rather hurtful than beneficial 
to her; for unless her attention can be drawn quite 
away from any experiment or needful operation, she 
sees what is being done, and from her normal recol- 
lection imagines the pain: just as she has equally 
imagined it, when she was told that she was pricked 
or pinched; and when reminded that she could not 
feel pain, when *' warm,^^ as she calls the mesmeric 
state, she replies, " Ah, but I see it ache, — or smart.^' 
Many parties, to whom these experiments were 
known, have desired me to throw them into the un- 
conscious state, before undergoing some minor opera- 
tion. It is well to state here, what I have repeatedly 



I 



96 BOMNOLISM AND P8YCHEI8M. 

dotfe orally^ that unless a person is of the peculiar 
mesmeric temperament or nature, or unless they have 
been repeatedly subjected to the influence, there is 
scarcely any probability of gratifying their wishes, and 
the attempt to do so, would only lead to disappoint- 
ment. Where, however, persons have become weak- 
ened by long continued pain, or are of a sensitive 
nature, it may succeed ; and in all cases where any 
serious operation may be looked for at a future period^ 
I should recommend mesmerism to be daily practised,, 
in order that the patient might be brought fully un- 
der its influence. As a general anaesthetic agent, 
ether, or chloroform, is more available, as all persons 
are receptive of its influence ; but where mesmerism 
can be used, it is infinitely preferable, inasmuch as 
it is free from all the danger attending the use of 
\ chloroform or ether, and produces no subsequent de- 
, rangement of the health, which these agents are apt 
'.to do. 

I now reply to a question often put to me : " How 
did you discover Emma^s lucidity or clairvoyance ?'' 
In the autumn of 1847, it was told me, that there was 
a young woman in Bolton, who had travelled the 
country with a mesmeric lecturer, and who had been 
for a long time clairvoyant. Having heard much of 
this wonderful faculty, I was desirous to see her, and 
examine for myself. She was soon after introduced 
to me for this purpose. I found that she was very 
easily mesmerised, more quickly in fact, than Emma; 
but in this state she knew me and others in the room, 
apparently as if awake, she was also fully susceptible 
of feeling ; nor did I observe any marked change in 
the tone of her voice; in all these particulars differing 
widely from Emma. I could not, on these accounts, 
satisfy myself as to the. reality of the mesmeric state. 
The young woman said, that she had formerly been 
in the same state as Emma, but had passed beyond 
it ; and, from subsequent experience I think this may 
be correct. She told me that she had been taken by 
several London physicians to examine the internid 



MESMERIC EXPERIENCE. 97 

t 

organs of patients by the faculty of clairvoyance; but 
when I saw her, her powers seemed to be confined to 
reading books with large print, with the eyes ban- 
daged. I tried the experiment several times, but 
never felt satisfied with the result, as, from the posi- 
tion in which she held the book, the time occupied in 
the endeavour, and the occasional wriggling, I could 
never be certain that she did not see under the band- 
ages. At other times, I was certainly much surprised 
at the readiness she evinced in describing a book I 
held in my hand. On the whole, I concluded that 
her possession of the faculty of clairvoyance, was, to 
say the least, doubtful. Since the first edition of this 
work was issued, I have several times heard of this 
young woman, and have been assured by parties on 
whom I can fiilly rely, that she has, in their presence, 
exhibited undoubted clairvoyance, when every pre- 
caution was taken to prevent deception. The phe- 
nomena, at the time first named, were quite new to 
me ; and probably I erred like others, in wanting the 
clairvoyante to exhibit her powers according to my 
own pre-conceived opinion of what she ouffht to do, 
provided she possessed the faculty, rather than let her 
take her own way. 

But it speedily occurred to me, that if this young 
woman could see in the manner she stated, perhaps 
Emma could see in the same manner. At aJl events, 
I had the most positive assurance, that in her the 
mesmeric state was genuine, and that the power of 
external vision was wholly suspended, while in the 
" sleep*'; moreover, the up-turned and in-drawn eyes, 
and closed eyelids, were sufficient to prevent her see- 
ing, even if there had been no effect produced on the 
optic nerve, and the sense of hearing seemed alone 
to connect her consciously with the external world. 
One evening I determined to try her. But at this 
period she was ignorant even of the letters of the 
alphabet, and even now, I am sorry to say, her pro- 
gress in learning to read, is but little. Pictorial 
representations were therefore chosen for the test, as 

6 



98 S0MN0LI8M AND PBTCHSI8M. 

bein^ a uniTenal langaage^ understood alike both b j 
the teamed and nnleamed. I took a school book 
belonging to my daughter^ whidh contained yarions 
wood-cats^ and opening it at one^ I placed it in her 
hand^ saying, ''Emma, what is this picture?" She 
took the book, and, as if by instinct, placed it open 
ijfoer her forehead and f/jpperpart of the cranium, with- 
out the least attempt to look at it in the ordinary 
way, and said almost directly, '' Oh yes, it is a 
naughty boy catching flies at the window, and his 
moti^er is looking at him.'' This was the subject of 
the picture and the story annexed : there was a figure 
of a boy at a window, and another figure of a female 
standing in the room observing him. I felt most ex- 
ceedingly surprised and astonished at the correctness 
of the description, being assured that she could not 
see it by any ordinary use of the eye, or, in fact, by the 
eye at all. This experiment was repeated with many 
different pictures, and always with the same result : 
coloured pictures were also tried, and it was found 
that she knew the different colours accurately; but on 
no occasion did she attempt to use the eye, — she in- 
variably placed it over her head. 

It was now thought, that as mesmerism evidently 
rested on a psychol(^cal basis, and that a manifest 
connection was discoverable between the mind of the 
mesmeriser and the mesmerised subject; she might 
see these pictures somehow by reflection firom my 
memory, or because I knew the subject, and not from 
any independent power of vision or . perception. To 
test this, I desired my daughter to select the pictures, 
and then to put them into my hand, without telling 
me the subject, or letting me see them. This was 
repeatedly done, and the pictures as accurately de- 
scribed as when I knew the subject. Still it was 
thought that my^jn^her the pictures might have 
some effect upon her, as they passed through, the 
hands of the operator; others, therefore, gave her 
them, or she was allowed to select them herself from 
a number given to her, or to turn over the pages of a 



. MISMEKIC EXFEBIENCB. 99 

book^ until she found a cut^ and to describe the sub*- 
ject before any one else had looked at it. It was 
found that these arrangements made no difference, 
and it became evident, that whatever was the power j 
or wherever was the seat of vision, it was her (mn, and 
independent of any one else. Sut there is little 
doubt, that much of what is called clairvoyance, is in 
reality, a reflection of the memories, or active ideas of 
persons in mesmeric connection with the reputed 
clairvoyant subject. And, even in the best cases, this 
reflection is possible, and may often interfere with 
real independent perception, as the clairvoyant, unless 
in a very interior or lucid state, cannot distinguish 
between the two classes of ideas. The knowledge of 
this fact, has led me to be particularly careful to 
guard against this source of error, and to caution all 
enquirers against being too sanguine, in their expecta- 
tions of the truth of clairvoyant revealments. 

Similar experiments to those just related were suc- 
cessfully performed, in private, before a select com- 
pany, and also before large public audiences, and this 
too, with her eyes covered with plaisters, and a baud- 
age tied over them. Not that the plaisters or band- 
ages made any difference, but they were used for 
the sake of convincing sceptical people. At this time, 
in ascertaining the subject of a picture, she first passed 
the tips of the fingers of the right hand gently over it. 
(the kft hand did not seem to possess the same power,) 
and then placed it over that part of the head marked 
on phrenological busts, as the organ of imitation. 
If a book with prints on the pages was given her, she 
would pass her right fingers gently over the page, and 
if it was merely reading, or a blank, she would say, 
*' It is nothing.'^ But when she had thus found out 
the situation of the print, she would exclaim, " Oh 
yesl here it is,'' or, " Tve got it." But whether the 
print was a wood-cut or a copper-plate, did not seem 
to make any difference. This difference in the powers 
of the right hand and the left, will subsequently be 

seen to depend on the course of the current of the 

5* 



100 aOMNOUSM AHU P8TCHEI8M. 

Tital electric aura; but of these currents I was then 
ignorant. 

A yery carious phenomenon was now observed. Pic- 
tures of things^ md not appear to her om piehares, but 
as the things represented. So that the picture of a rose 
would convey as vtvuf and reo/ an idea to her sensorium^ 
as the rose itself would do, to an individual in the ordi- 
nary state. Hence it was found, that if a picture of 
thistles f teazels, or other prickly plants, or of bees, was 
given into her hand, the moment the tips of her right 
fingers came into contact with the picture, she would 
exclaim that she if ?a pricked or stung, and throw the 
picture from her, with much violence and passion! 
Evidently proving, that the representations of things 
were to her real; and also suggesting, that she had a 
perception of the form of the objects, before placing 
the picture on her head. These experiments were 
performed many times, both pubUdy and privately; 
and from her invariable use of the tips of the right 
fingers, it was supposed that there existed some un- 
known but remarkable affinity between the senses of 
touch and sight. The subsequent discovery of the 
vital electrical current, has explained the use of the 
right fingers in these experiments ; and the develop- 
ment of a higher degree of lucidity, has enabled her 
to correct the first impressions of the image-forming 
faculty. But the narrative of the earlier developments 
and ideas is preserved, to shew the gradual awaken- 
ing of the internal perceptions ; and as affording pre- 
sumptive evidence, that the internal, or spiritual, fa- 
culties of man, are gradually developed, and require 
cultivation by use, as well as the common external 
faculties. 

By the commencement of 1848, her power of inter- 
nal sight had become so far developed, or she had be- 
come so far familiarized with her new faculty, that it 
was evident, from many things observed, that she 
could see such things as her mind was directed to, 
without any contact. As an experiment, small pic- 
tures, and various small objects, were pkced singly. 



ME8MEBIC EXPB&IENCB. 101 

first in a card box^ and afterwards in a wooden box ; 
these ahe^ at times, told as readily, as when ont of the 
box and in her hands. At other times, much di£Sculty 
was experienced in satisfiBU^torily determining that she 
cxmld see them; indeed, it wonld seem, that, notwith- 
standing her lucidity on other occasions, she could not 
at all times see objects thus placed. Of course, the 
only CYidence of her seeing things, or having a percep. 
tion of them, was firom her describing them. But, 
when in the internal state, her manner was to describe 
things as they appeared to her in that state, and ac- 
cording to the development of the internal perception, 
which was then quite infantile, and even now, far 
finom what may be considered as an adult state. Hence, 
she would seldom call things by their accustomed 
name, and sometimes refused to do so, when the 
name was suggested to her. At other times, after 
giving her curious description, she would end by add- 
ing the common name of the object. As an instance, 
the following may be given: — At the second public 
lecture at the Temperance Hall, Bolton, on the 9th of 
March, 1848, a gentleman in front of the platform, 
sn^ested that a picture, from among others lying on 
the floor, should be put into a box and given to her; 
she had then been bandaged over the eyes for some 
time. A print of a cat was selected, and put into a 
card box : she put the box over her head, felt it care- 
fnlly with her right fingers, and then, having by a smile 
and ejaculation evinced that she saw the contents, she 
began, — '' It is a thing; it is a dark thing; it has four 
legs, a tail, a head, and two eyes; things round its 
mouth; audit sits by the fire, and says, mew; and it*s 
a cat.'' At other tmies, it was almost impossible to 
understand from her description the object meant; 
but when seen, the reason of her description could be 
perceived. 

These experiments with boxes led to much annoy- 
ance. Too frequently almost every one in a company 
would be urging her to describe the hidden contents 
of their packages, in which things were concealed 



102 SOHNOUBM AND PSTCHEI8M. 

under every kind of distortion and mixture^ in order 
to increase the difficolty of the trial ; and supposing 
it was by common vision the things were to be seen, 
it was expected that at once she should describe the 
contents of these packages, and in common language. 
No wonder that her temper became ruffled by these 
procedures, and that she refused to look at them. 
Besides, as since observed, the activity of clairvoyant, 
or ludd vision, powerfully affects the nervous system, 
and hence, quickly fatigues; so that after even a 
moderate sitting, the subject is unfitted for any trial 
that requires mental effort. On these accounts, I 
discontinued all such experiments, as of no practical 
value, being generally required to gratify mere idle 
curiosity. Thiat she possessed the power of perceiving 
objects through opaque substances, was sufficiently 
evident, as she frequently described persons in anoth^ 
room, and said what they were doing, and this would 
sometimes occur when her attention had not been di- 
rected to the inquiry. At other times she has, unex- 
pectedly and unasked, told individuals what they had 
in their pockets, or what sort of food was contained in 
their stomachs. This often afforded matter for amusing 
experiments, and has been witnessed by many respect- 
able persons in the neighbourhood. 

One cause of difficulty in obtaining clear descriptions 
of the things to which her attention was directed, and 
sometimes, even in getting her to notice them, was 
very early perceivable. In the exalted condition of 
mesmerism, her mind was peculiarly susceptible of 
impressions from the minds of surrounding persons ; 
hence, when environed by a knot of sceptics, as was 
sometimes the case, their mental influence, uncon- 
sciously to themselves, would seriously impede her 
powers, and then, the feeling that something was pre- 
venting the usual development of her faculty of per- 
ception, caused irritation and obstinacy. At the period 
alluded to, when Emma was asked — '^ How she saw 
things?" she would reply, that ^^ glasses^' suddenly 
came to her, and also, that she saw everything in Ught 



HESHBKIC EXPEBIENCE. ' 108 

through these '^ glasses,'' and the situation of these 
glasses^ she always referred to the locality of the 
organs of imitation. When this doubting, opposing 
influence was brought to bear upon her, she would 
exchdm^ '*They are darkening my glasses;" or, "They 
have taken away my glasses.'' At this time, I fre- 
quently found, tnat by meiismg passes from the upper 
part of the head, across the organs of imitation down- 
wards to the sides of the head^ I could produce and 
increase the clairroyant pow^, which she would evince 
by exchdming, "Oh, it's so light now;" while, by making 
longitudinal passes, from the vertex, over the forehead, 
and down to the face, the sight could be immediately 
closed, and she would be placed in a state of darkness. 
Sometimes she would say, that there were '^httle 
glasses" at the tips of her right fingers. 

This rrference to glasses, as well as other remarks 
she was in the habit of making, shews that the recol- 
lections (^ the normal state influenced her language, 
and most probably originated the ideas she possessed. 
In the first instance, she was not conscious of the 
change that mesmerism had induced upon her, and 
this often led to amusing and interesting exhibitions. 
^ow she is aware of it, but seems unable to describe 
the nature of the change. She invariably calls it 
" being warmed" or, *' I am warm now." When she 
wishes to be demesmerised, she says, ''Have me." 
Repeatedly I have asked, — '' What do you mean by 
having you ?" But I have not yet succeeded in getting 
wiy other reply than "Having me;" "Having me a//." 
She cannot comprehend, or describe her state, but 
being conscious that a change has passed over her, and 
that she is to do something in the nature of an experi- 
ment, or feat, she feels something of the timidity 
which would be felt by a performer in the normal 
state. Hence, experiments, which in the earlier stages 
were easily performed, are now ' accomplished with 
greater difficulty. And I have no doubt, but that this 
feeling has been the cause of the failure of some of 
the experiments with boxes and closed packages, inas- 



104 SOMNOUSM AND P8YCHBI8M. 

much as the recollection of the impossibility of seeing 
through opaque substances in the normal state^ has 
induced a fear, which has^ in a great measure, de- 
stroyed her lucidity. The fact, that it would be 
equally impossible to see objects with the eyelids 
closed^ and placed over the head, in her manner of 
looking at them^ does not seem to occur to her. 

In another respect, her increased lucidity has ren- 
dered her less manageable as a subject for experiment, 
while it has demonstrated powers which before lay 
dormant. She has observed the upward parses by 
which she has been demesmerised, and also the passes 
by which her limbs have been made cataleptic, or her 
mouth closed^ &c., and has discovered that she can her^ 
9e\f neutralize these passes. K her arm is made rigid, 
she will blow upon it^ and make upward passes with 
the other band and arm^ and by tluEit means set her 
arm at liberty. If both hands are fastened, she will 
release them by^continual blowing; but if neither 
arm is at liberty, and the mouth is dosed, she cannot 
extricate herself. When she has gone spontaneously 
mesmerised, or becomes impatient at my not demes- 
merizing her as soon as she requires it, she will de- 
mesmerise herself with upward passes, with both hands 
over her face and forehead, and this she calls, '^ Hav^ 
ing herself P This is one, among other proofs, that 
there are vital currents passing along the nerves, and 
that they possess a sort of polarity, which is changed 
by mesmerism. She has not yet evinced any idea of 
increasing her lucidity ; nor do the ctobs passes, re- 
ferred to above, appear to have any effect on her 
powers now. If the organs of individuality, eventu- 
ality, form, or colour, are touched, she feels the influ- 
ence, but says it makes no difference to her power of 
seeing. This leads me to conclude, that the state- 
ments often made, of imparting clairvoyant powers to 
subjects by touching various organs, and afterwards 
giving them the power to recollect what has transpired 
in the mesmeric sittings, are in some degree deceptive, 
and that such subjects only display the results of 



MESMERIC BXPE&IENCE. 105 

plireno-mesmeric, or imagiDative^ action; and^ in 
some cases^ were never in the state of true mesmeric 
coma. Whether Emma is demesmerised by me or 
herself^ all that has passed is alike a blank to her. 

The faculty by which the various experiments above 
recited were performed, I have called lucidity; re- 
stricting the term clairvoyance to the perception of 
distant things or persons. For a long time after 
£mma had exhibited the most distinct lucidity, with 
respect to objects placed near to her, no trace could be 
fotind of clairvoyance, in the sense just mentioned. 
I tried to bring out this faculty by thinking intently 
of some object well known to me, at a distance, and 
theu desiring her to look at it, but found her unable 
to do so. Once I asked her about St. PauPs Church, 
in London ; she told me she could see it : I desired 
her to describe it, but could see no resemblance, in 
her description, to that well-known building. Upon 
inquiry, I found it was St. Paul's, Birmingham, that 
she meant, and that church she had frequently seen 
dmingthe time she lived in that town. The first time 
I discovered any manifestation of distant clairvoyance, 
was in the case of some near relatives in London. 
She described minutely the dress and appearance of 
these parties, their occupation at a certain time, and 
other particulars, which were subsequently found to 
be correct. 

The following experiment was interesting, as afford- 
ing some clue to the mode by which distant objects 
were perceived, and clearly shewing the possibility of 
a clairvoyant's being able to perceive the active senti- 
ments or ideas of the mind of a distant individual. I 
had directed Emma's attention to a female relative in 
London; she speedily found her, and began to de- 
scribe her residence, etc. ; but suddenly her attention 
ceased to be directed to my relative, and she became 
engrossed with the description of a magnificent resi- 
dence, with its elegant and costly fbmiture ; a lady 
lying in a superb bed; a beautifully dressed baby; well 
dressed ladies in and about the room, and another 



106 MlOfOUSM AND rSTCHSUM. 

room in which were older children^ also beautifiiUy 
dresaed, and attended b^ ladies. From many replies 
to my inquiries^ I considered that the only place to 
which her impassioned descriptions could refer, was 
Backingham Palace, for the accouchment of the Qneen 
had then recently occurred. I therefore said, with a 
yiew of ascertaining the correctness of my conjectorey 
— " Do you see any soldiers there ?" " Yes/' she re- 
plied, ''there are soldiers at the door/' I then saw 
that my coigecture might be correct; but why she 
should have spontaneously gone there, without any re- 
quest or desire on my part, or the most remote idea of 
mating royalty the subject of experiment, was a mys- 
tery. But after I had informed my relative of the 
occurrence, I obtained the clue to this seemingly mys- 
terious transition firom one subject to another ; for I 
was informed that she had been thinking of the inter- 
esting circumstances in which the Queen was then 
placed, and also of the curious faculty of my Bolton 
clairvoyante, and felt desirous to know whether Emma 
had the power to visit and describe the interior of the 
palace at that time. The cause, therefore, of Emma's 
unexpected visit ta royalty was this : mv relative had 
wished her to go there ; when brought into mesmeric 
connection with her, the active sentiment of her mind 
wascommunicated to Emma's mind, and by thismeans, 
her attention was unconsciously directed to the royal 
residence. But there was further conlBrmation that 
this was the true cause, and also, of the possibility of 
a mesmerised subject receiving impressions from the 
mind of the party to whom their attention is directed, 
notwithstanding they may be personally many miles 
from each other; for when I knew from my relative's 
letter what had been the subject of her thoughts, I 
put Emma into the mesmeric state, and asked her, — 
^^ How and why she went to see the Queen?" She 

directly replied, — " L took me." " But how did 

you get in, if there were soldiers at the door ?" The 
answer was curious : " Oh, I jumped over the soldiers, 
but L could not jump over them, and, therefore. 



HB8MBBIC EX?ERIENC£. 107 

ahe could not get in/' The reader will here observe 
an instance of the dream-like incongruity which at- 
tends most dairvoyant perceptions ; as Emma mistook 
thecommunication of an idea, for an actual accompany- 
ixig of the party, by whom the idea had been commu- 
nicated. And the facility of her entrance, notwith- 
standing the guards, appeared to her as jumping over 
tliem. 

At this time, whenever sent on these distant excur- 
sions, she exlubited great fatigue and excitement; 
panting for breath, and suffering from violent action 
of the heart. When asked. Why she panted so ? she 
would say, — " I've gone so fast ;*' and, "It is such a 
wayP' She would also, sometimes, take my right 
liand,and place it on her bosom, and that seemed to put 
ber into connection with the persons sought, and ap- 
peared to help her : and, if the hand was removed, 
she would say, " They are gone away now.'' As her 
state kept cluuiging, the nervous prostration, attend- 
ing this sort of inquiry, increased. For it appeared, 
as if her mind partially left her body, to go to the 
place sought; and thus, another, and farther , inver- 
sum of state took place. From these distant places, 
the mind seemed to come fully back, so as to replace 
her in the ordinary mesmeric state. But this coming 
back was attended with so much prostration, and such 
alarming palpitation of the heart, that, had I not dis- 
covered a mode to obviate it, I must have altogether 
discontinued such experiments. I now mention the 
circumstance, to shew the various states she has 
passed through, and as a warning and guide for 
future experimenters. When Emma was asked the 
reason for this violent action of the heart, she said, 
that, when the mind was thus drawn away, the "mag- 
netic fluid," as she called the vital aura, was drawn 
from the body, and was merely connected with the 
heart and the brain; and that, if a person was kept 
too long in this state, it would leave the heart and 
brain also, and they would " shell,^' — ^her phrase for 
dying. The great excitement, and palpitation, was 



106 80MNOLI8M AND PSYCHSUM. 

cauaedi she said, by the ''fluid^' rushing firom the 
heart into its accustomed channels. I had, at this 
time, no means of communicating with her when 
away ; for hearing , as well as sight and feeling, was 
now withdrawn; and she evinced not the sl^htest 
consciousness if loud, or sudden, noises, were made 
dose to her ears. Tin& want of connection was at- 
tended with great inconvenience; inasmuch, as no 
question could be put to her, or explanation sought, 
until, by the re-inoeriion of her state, she came, as it 
were, back again, to the first clairvoyant, or merely 
lucid state ; and, every time this re-inversion occur- 
red, it was attended with the palpitation and excite- 
ment already mentioned. IVequently, interesting 
parts of a communication were left in a half-told 
state, and necessary questions omitted to be put, be- 
cause of the danger incurred in sending her away, 
more than once at a sitting. 

About this time, I read of some foreign somnam- 
bules, as they are generally called, having a perception 
of hearing, &c., through the great plexus of organic 
nerves, near the stomach. I, therefore, applied one 
end of a tube to this region, and spoke through the 
other end. To my surprise, I found that Emma could 
hear my voice, but had not the teast idea whose voice it 
was. It must be recollected, that, by frequent expe- 
riment, on my part, and on the part of others, it had 
been satisfactorily ascertained, that the ordinary sense 
of hearing was wanting, or paralysed, when, by this 
second inversion, Emma was sent away. Here, then, 
was a most curious physiological circumstance, quite 
unlooked for. But it was also curious, psychologically: 
for, when Emma came back to her first state, ^e 
spoke of voices coming to her, but could not tell how, or 
in what manner, they came, or hardly be persuaded 
that it was my voice. The phenomenon of ancient 
seers receiving communication by voices heard, at 
once recurred to my mind, and here appeared an 
illustration of it. The sound was not conveyed to the 
ordinary or^an of hearing; indeed, hearing, in the or- 



MESMERIC EXPEBIENCE« 109 

dinary sense, no longer remained ; but it was conveyed 
to the sensorium by a more internal way : and it ap- 
peared, as if a sufficient impression, upon the internal 
organism of a seer, in his seer, or trance, state, would 
convey the impression of audible sound, although 
perfectly imperceptible to ordinary hearing. 

Many experiments were made, to ascertain the 
nature, or law, of this mode of hearing; but all Emma 
could say was, that the voices appeared to her to 
conae from her heart. After a few days^ trial, I was 
obliged to discontinue this method of communication, 
because the suddenness of it, caused some fright and 
palpitation of the heart, and seemed, also, to shake 
the whole spinal column; so that, when folly awake, 
she complained for some time of the effects, although 
ignorant of the cause. Once, when away, she held 
out her right hand, as if by instinct ; and I tried the 
experiment, of speaking to the tips of the fingers; and 
I found she heard me as long as her finger was re- 
tained in connection with my moist lips; but, the 
instant the connection was broken, she ceased to hear. 
The analogy to galvanic communication was here 
strikingly perceptible. On some occasions it was 
found, that she could thus hear the voice of other 
parties, by forming a chain with each others^ hands, 
and then a connection with her hand and the lips of 
one of the party. It is by this means of speaking to 
her hand, whUe pressed closely to my lips, that I now 
communicate with her when away; and she m?^' knows 
my voice, or that of other persons, who may speak to 
her in this way. 

A curious physiological experiment may be here 
mentioned, as illustrating the cause of Emma's hear- 
ing by the hand, when away; and as also proving, 
that some influence, or current, proceeds from her 
when in the mesmeric state, which is not observable 
in the normal state. One day, while she was in the 
mesmeric state, the cat jumped on her lap. Emma's 
large philoprogenitiveness leads her to be fond of 
small animals; and, by her lucidity, perceiving the 



110 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHBI8H. 



[, she began to caress it^ by strokiiig it with 
her right hand on its head. The cat instantiy began 
to evince signs of fear or pain, and to cry in a pecnUar 
half piteous, half savage, tone. She observed it, and said 
it was because she was **tiHtrm" — her term, as I have al- 
ready observed, for being inthe mesmeric state; and that 
the ''warm fluid,'' or ''magnetic fluid,'' fi*om her hands, 
affected its " pappy-Hm^/* or brain, and would make 
it mad if she continned. I was much struck with this 
circumstance, and repeatedly tried it with other cats 
and kittens, but, generally, with some trouble; as, 
when she saw the effect produced, she could hardly be 
persuaded to place her right hand on the cat's head ; 
and I had some fears of hurting her, as the ftniTnitla 
always became savage, and endeavoured to bite. A 
gentleman who was present on one of these occasions^ 
veiy justly remarked, that the cat could not deceive 
us ; and, that there could be no doubt, that some pe- 
culiar influence emanated from her hand. For some 
time, it did n^t occur to me to try the experiment 
with the cat, when Emma was away, but when I 
did so, I found that her right hand could be laid on 
the cat's head, without producing any observable re- 
sult ; but that as soon as she was came back into the 
first state, the cat cried, and struggled, as usual. 
Here was an evidence of the change, or inversion, of 
the currents; proving that the direction wasjrom her 
right hand, when in the fint ludd state, but reversed 
when she was, by farther inversion, sent away ; and 
the reason why Emma used her right hand to assist 
her perceptions, while in the lucid state, was now 
evident, inasmuch, Bsjrom that hand, the ludd stream 
issued forth, by^which she perceived objects, though, 
generally, it emanated more powerfully, from the upper 
part of the cranium. This course of the currents was 
further proved, by more lately observing, that when 
away, the7^ hand affected a cat similarly to the right 
hand in the first state. The experiment has not been 
tried with dogs; partly from Emma's fear of hurting the 
animals, and my fear lest she should be bitten, or 



MESMERIC EXPEHIENCE. Ill 

iiyiired : and it is possiblci that the well-known elec- 
trical properties of the Cat^ may render that animal 
peculiarly susceptible of her influence. Such ex- 
periments are of great importance in these enquiries; 
as they are open to every one^s observation^ and de«- 
pend in no degree on her feelings^ or imagination, 
and cannot be simulated. I have now tried them so 
often, and have also seen them occur so frequently, 
when a kitten has jumped on her lap, and she has, 
from habit, and forgetting her condition, put her right 
hand on its head, that there can be no doubt of the 
physiological fact, ' • ' ^ 



CHAPTER VI. 

succxaaruL clairyotant bxpckucbnti. 

Bbsiobs the power of seeing objects^ the situation of 
which were known to myself^ or others^ Emma fre- 
quently Mouyht out, and told me where missing articles 
were to be found. This was done chiefly as a test of 
her powers^ and was confined to occurrences within 
my own dwelling; and were such as to satisfy me, 
that, when in her best lucid states, she could perceive, 
and point out, the situation of articles, when unknown 
both to herself, myself, and others. But I did not 
venture to try her powers beyond my own residence. 
However, an opportunity for doing this, on a wider 
field, arose quite unexpectedly. 

Mr. Henry Wood, a very respectable tea dealer and 
grocer, carrying on his business in Cheapside, Bolton, 
nearly opposite my then residence, had the misfortune, 
on the evening of December 20th, 1848, to have his 
cash*box, with its contents, stolen from his counting- 
house. He applied to the police, and took other pre- 
cautionary steps, with a view of discovering and ar- 
resting the thief or thieves. But he bad no due to 
the thief, although, he told me, he suspected an indi- 
vidual, who was afterwards proved to be completely 
innocent. It then occurred to him, to apply to me, 
to assist him to recover his property; or, at least, to 
know how it was stolen. I had not then permitted 
any public notice of my experiments, and they were 
chiefly known to a few persons in Bolton and Man- 
chester, who felt interested in the inquiry. The 
reason why Mr. Wood applied to me was as follows : 
About two or three months previously, a commercial 
gentleman, from Manchester, who did business with 
Mr. Wood, had called at my house, and introduced a 
gentleman, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who then had 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPCRIMENTS. 113 

a daagbter seriously ill. Emma described the state 
of this lady^ I understood^ very accurately^ and also 
the house and neighbourhood in which she livedo 
much to the surprise of both gentlemen. The com- 
mercial gentleman called on Mr. Wood the same day^ 
in the regular course of his business^ and told him 
how much he had been smrprised and interested^ in 
what he had seen in my house. This circumstance 
recurred to Mr. Wood's mind, when in a state of 
anxiety for his loss^ and induced him to send for me. 
I went over directly, it then being nearly eleven 
o'clock^ expecting to find a patient, for he had not 
aaid why he wanted to see me. I found him and his 
shopmen and servants all standing about, in a state of 
consternation, and wondered what could be the mat- 
ter ; but on going up stairs with Mr. Wood privately, 
he told me of his loss, and requested me to assist him. 
I felt considerable hesitation in employing Emma's 
powers for such a purpose; fearing, that both the 
motive, and the agency , might be grossly misrepre- 
sented. But the amount at stake, the opportunity 
for an interesting and novel experiment, and Mr* 
Wood being also a neighbour, induced me to comply 
with his request, and make the trial, without, how- 
ever, giving him any hopes of success. I had that 
day been to Manchester, mesmerising a patient, and 
was in an unfit state to mesmerise Emma, as I before 
had, under similar circumstances, communicated 
much pain to her; besides, she had retired to bed. 
I could not, for these reasons, try that night, but ap- 
pointed nine o'clock the next morning for the trial. 
At that hour, Mr. Wood came over to my house. 
Having no clue to the thief, or anything to form a 
medium of connection, I thought it best to put Mr. 
Wood into mesmeric connection with her, and then 
to direct her attention to the cash-box, and see 
whether this chain would lead her to the thief or 
thieves. I did so ; and then told her that Mr. Wood 
had lost his cash- box, and that I wished her to tell us, 
if she could, where the box was taken from, what was 



114 80MN0LI8M AND P8TCHSI81I. 

in it, and who took it ? She remained silent for a 
few minutes: evidently, mentally seeking what she 
had been requested to discover. Presently she began 
to talk with an imaginary personage, as if present in 
the room with us ; but, as it subsequently proved^ ahe 
was mentally with him, and he was both real and visi- 
ble to her. She had, in fiict, discovered the thief, 
and was conversing with him on the impropriety of 
his conduct, and the great anxiety he had caused to 
Mr. Wood and his servants ; whom, she said, had not 
been able to sleep, on account of the robbery. In 
the course of this apparent conyersation, and after- 
wards to us, she described where the box was placed, 
what the general nature of its contents was, particu- 
larizing some documents it contained, Mr. Wood said, 
very accurately ; how he took it, and that he did not 
take it away at once, but hid it up an entry ; and she 
then pointed out the direction in which this person 
lived, and, also, where the box then was. Her de- 
scriptions were so vivid, that Mr. Wood recognized in 
them a person the last to be suspected. To be as- 
sured, many questions were now put to her ; among 
which, — ^Was there any name-plate on the door she 
saw ? She replied, yes ; and made the shape of the 
letters on her hand, but reversed. This was the 
name of the person to whom her description pointed. 
Mr. Wood said, that he now felt satisfied that he 
had discovered the delinquent. I recommended him 
to put it into the hands of our superintendent of po- 
lice j but he said, that he thought he could do with- 
out that, and that, for several reasons, he should prefer 
trying his ownmethodfirst. He, therefore, went directly 
to the house Emma had pointed out, by the name on 
the door-plate; found the suspected party, and brought 
him to my house, telling him why he wished him to 
accompany him, and that, if he revised to go, he 
should at once employ the^ police. When brought 
into my presence, I did not recognize him from 
Emma's description, on account of his dress being so 
different. Emma was again put in the mesmeric 



I 



CLAIRTOTANT EXPEBIHBNT8. 115 

state^ and repeated^ in the man^s presence^ lier state- 
ments to ns ; and^ apparently^ took no notice of his 
bodily presence. I^ therefore^ called him forward^ 
and put his hand into Emma's hand. She instantly 
started back convulsively^ as if he had been a serpent^ 
—evincing great fear, and clinging to me. She told 
liim^ among other tldngs^ that he was a bad man^ 
tbat he did take the box^ and that he had not then 
the same clothes on as when he took the box. This 
^w^as the fact^ for he was then in a working-dress, — 
bixt^ on the evening previous, had been dressed in 
\n& better clothes. 

This was quite a scene: the man looked pale and anli-- 
ons, and bit his lips, but denied still most strenuously 
all knowledge of the robbery^ and professed a great 
desire to assist Mr. Wood, in discovering the thief. 
!Mr. Wood was agitated, and seemed much more af- 
fected than the delinquent, and the clairvoyante kept 
convulsively clinging to me for protection. Mr. Wood 
took the young man away, and put him into the safe- 
keeping of some of his servants, and then fetched the 
parents and told them the whole particulars, and 
stated, that for their sakes he would not prosecute if 
the young man would confess, and the box was re- 
stored : if not, he should certainly do so. They saw 
how strongly auspicious the case was, and urged him, 
if guilty, to confess, and save them from the exposure 
of a prosecution; but it was not until late in the 
afternoon that he did so, when he fully acknowledged 
the truth of all Emma^s statements. 

This young man was well known to Mr. Wood, 
and was also intimate with a young man then in Mr. 
Wood^s employ. He was in the habit of coming to 
Mr. Wood^sof an evening, and had been there on the 
night in question, and stayed somewhat later than 
usual. One window of Mr. Wood's house is in 
Cheapside, the other in Ashbumer Street, — being a 
comer house. While the porter was putting up the 
shutters, he seized the opportunity to take the box 
from a shelf on which it stood, ^ and to pass unob* 



116 80MNOLI8M AND P8YCHBI8M. 

served oat of the Ashbumer street door^ and to put 
the box on some steps in an entry between Mr. 
Wood's house and the next house. When he left to 
go home^ he did not turn to the right towards the 
entry for the box, but, as Emma said, went apparent- 
ly in the direction of his home ; but in reality made a 
round through several streets, and came back to Ash- 
bumer street again, and found the box still up the 
entry, where he had placed it. He took it home un- 
known to his Mends, and the next morning, before it 
was fully light, he took it to a public building to 
which he had access, not far from his father's house, 
and then forced the box open, and left it, and tJiere 
it was found in that condition. By 10 o'clock Mr. 
Wood had him most unexpectedly in custody, so that 
he had no opportunity for further concealing or des- 
troying the box and its contents, and this I conclude 
was the chief reason for his ultimate confession. He 
must have been fully aware, that if Emma could so 
accurately trace his doings, she would point out the 
place of concealment, which was in the exact direc- 
tion which she stated; and it was intended, when 
dark, to have put her again in the mesmeric state, 
and got her to lead us to the spot. This, the confes- 
sion rendered unnecessary. 

A somewhat fuller narrative of this circumstance is 
now given, than in the first edition, in order to place 
the facts in a clearer light; and because some parties, 
from a determined spirit of scepticism, have endea- 
voured to throw doubts on Mr. Wood's veracity. In 
this case, the delinquent was brought into my pre- 
sence ; I both saw and heard Emma directly chaise 
him with the theft; and sometime afterwards, I re- 
ceived a letter from the young man, acknowledging 
and regretting his offence, and stating that he trusted 
it would be a warning to him for his future life, at 
the same time begging that I would not divulge his 
name. This I have not done, and my object in this 
and similar instances, has not been to publish narratives 
of crime or carelessness, but simply to give undeniable 



CLAIBYOYANT EZFEBIMBNTS. 117 

and remarkable cases^ proving the existence of the 
faculty of clairvoyance. After I had heard of the 
confession^ and restoration of the box^ I put Emma 
into the mesmeric state^ and got her again, privately, 
to tell me the particulars; and I then observed to 
lier, that she did not seem to notice the young man^s 
being nearer to her, when in the room, than before 
lie came. Her answer was very curious, psychologi- 
catty ; " He was no nearer to me then, than before/' 
On another occasion she told me that had I formed 
the connection between him and her left-hand^ she 
should not have been so much affected. This hap- 
pened when a suspected party was, unknowingly to 
both myself and Emma, brought into her presence. 
When I pot them into connection, the same convul- 
sive shrinking and fear was evinced. In this latter 
case, there was no direct legal proof of guilt, and 
seeing the injury it was doing to Emma, I at once 
stopped the enquiry, especially as I did not wish to 
be (»lled upon to give any opinion of the transaction, 
and all the parties were highly respectable. 

The next case to which I shall refer has obtained 
a wide-spread notoriety, and on that account, but 
chiefly on account of the respectability of the parties 
concerned, and the thorough sifting the evidence has 
undergone, is of much interest. I give it from the 
report in the Bolton Chronicle, of September 8th, 
1849, which, with the exception of the first para- 
graph, I drew up. This report was partially copied 
into a Liverpool Paper, and from the Liverpool Paper, 
into the " Times'' newspaper, and from thence went 
the round of the press. '^ Interesting case of 
Clairvoyance. Bbcovert of £650. Having heard 
various rumours in the town to the effect that a large 
sum of money had been recovered through the instru- 
mentality of clairvoyance, we were induced to make 
some enquiries : and the result is, that according to 
the testimony of several of the parties concerned, the 
following is a correct narrative of the circumstances: — 

'' On Saturday, July 14th, (1849,) a letter was re- 



118 801CNOLI8H AND P8TCHBI8K. 

oeiyed by Messrs. P. B. Arrowsmith and Co.^ of tbis 
towuj firom Bradford, Yorkshire, containing a Bank 
of England note for £500, another for £60, and a bill 
of exchange for jElOO. These, Mr. Arrowsmith 
handed over in his regular mode oi business, to Mr. 
William Lomax, his cashier, who took or sent, as he 
supposed, the whole to the Bank of Bolton, and made 
an entry accordingly in his cash-book. The bank- 
book was then at tne bank, so that no memorandum 
of the payment was received or expected. After the 
expiration of about fire weeks, upon comparing the 
bank-book with the cash-book, it was found that no 
entry for these sums was in the bank-book. Enquiry 
was then made at the bank, but nothing was known 
of the money, nor was there any entry existing in any 
book or paper there ; and, after searching, no trace 
could be found of the misaing money. In fact, the 
parties at the bank denied ever haying received the 
sum, or knowing any thing of the transaction. Be- 
fore the discovery of the loss the bill had become due; 
but upon enquiry, after the loss was discovered, it was 
found that it had not been presented for payment. 
It was therefore concluded, that as the notes and bill 
could not be found at the bank, nor any trace or entry 
connected with them, the probability was, that they 
were lost or stolen, and that the bill had been de- 
stroyed to prevent detection. Mr. Lomax had a dis- 
tinct recollection of having received the notes, &c., 
from Mr. Arrowsmith ; but from the length of tune 
that had elapsed when the loss was discovered, he 
could not remember what he had done with them — 
whether he had taken them to the bank, or sent them 
by the accustomed messenger: nor could the messen- 
ger recollect any thing about them. 

'' As might be expected, this unaccountable loss, 
occasioned great anxiety to Mr. Lomax, and in this 
emergency he appUed to a friend, to whom the dis- 
covery of Mr. Wood's cash-box was known, to ascer- 
tain the probability of the notes being found by the 
aid of clairvoyance. The friend replied, that he saw 



GIiAIBVOTANT SXPSBIMENTS. 119 

no greater difficulty in the case than in Wood's^ and 
reconunended him to make the enquiry: which he 
said he would do^ if only for his own satisfaction. 
After some furtheV consideration it was determined 
to ask Mr, Haddock^ of Cheapside, to make the en- 
quiry, but not to inform him of any particulars of 
liHiat the letter contained. Mr. Haddock was ac- 
cx>rdingly applied to; and from his knowledge of the 
respectability of the parties, he consented to make 
tbe experiment. 

** On Eriday, Aug. 24th, Mr. Lomax, accompanied 
by Mr. F. Jones, of Ashbumer-street, Bolton, (the 
friend aboye alluded to,) called on Mr. Haddock for 
tliis purpose. The clairvoyant was put into the 
psycluc state, and then into connection with Mr. 
Liomax. She directly asked for * the papers ^ mean- 
ing the letter id which the notes and bill were en- 
closed ; but this Mr. Lomax did not happeq to have 
in his possession, and she said she could not teQ any 
thing without it. This sitting was, therefore, so far 
naeless. The next, day Mr. Lomax brought the letter, 
and Mr. Haddock requested that the contents might 
not be communicated to him, lest- it should be sup- 
posed that he had suggested any thing to her. After 
considerable thought and examination, the clairvoyante 
said, that there had been three different papers for 
money in that letter, not post-office orders, but papers 
that came out of a place where people kept money in 
(a ionJt), and were to be taken to another place of a 
similar kind* That these papers came in the letter to 
another gentleman (Mr. Airowsmith), who gave them 
to the one present (Mr. Lomax), who put them in a 
paper, and then put them in a red book that wrapped 
round (a pocket-book). Mr. Lomax then, to the sur- 
prise of Mr. Haddock, pulled from his coat pocket, a 
dkep red pocket book, made just as she had described 
it, and said that was the book in which he was in the 
habit of phidng simihir papers. 

'^ Mr. Haddock thought she was wrong as to the 
number of papers, for he conceived that the letter 



120 80MNOLI8M AND PdTCHEIBM. 

contained a cheque ; but the dairVoyant persisted in 
saying that there were three papers, two of which 
were of the same kind, and of the same sort of paper, 
but one more valuable than the other, and the third 
on different paper with a stamp on it. Mr. H. 
somewhat baffled and irritated her by his enquiries in 
this respect, and by his not crediting her statements, 
but thinking she was in error, and this tended to ob- 
8Ciu*e her meaning. Mr. Lomax now said that the 
clairvoyante was right ; that the letter contained two 
Bank of England notes, and a bill of exchange, but 
he did not say what was the value of the notes. Mr. 
H. then put a ten pound Bank of England note into 
the clairvoyante's hand ; she said that two of the 
papers were like that, but more valuable, and (in 
answer to a question) thai the black and white word 
at the comer wa$ longer. She further said, that 
these notes, &c., were taken to a place where money 
was kept, (a bank,) doum there, (pointing towards 
Deansgate, the site of the Bank of Bolton). Be- 
yond this, no further enquiry waa made at that sit- 
ting. 

^' In the evening, Mr. Arrowsmith called with Mr. 
Makant, of Oilnow Croft, Mr. Lomax, and Mr. F. 
Jones, to finish the enquiry. But in the interim, 
the clairvoyante had unexpectedly become (spontane- 
ously) mesmerised, and a letter from Scotland having 
some reference to cholera, being put into her hands, 
she went in quest of a cholera patient, whose case she 
said had proved fatal. She was much interested in 
this case ; said how it might have been cured ; and 
spoke of her examination of the corpse. The en- 
quiries, however, made such an impression on the 
organic system of nerves, that, notwithstanding pre- 
cautions were taken, she soon manifested symptoms 
of cholera after she awaked; which became so urgent, 
that strong measures were required to subdue them. 
She was, therefore, too ill for any further enquiry, and 
the gentlemen retired without witnessing any further 
experiment. Mr. Arrowsmith left the sealed letter. 



GXiAlltVOYANT BXPERIMENtI. 121 

to be used when she was: again fit for the enquiry^ bat 
no further use was made of it till Monday. 

^' On that day^ Mr. Lomax called again. The clair- 
voyante was now well, and she went over the case 
again, entering more minutely into particulars. She 
persisted in her former statements, that she could see 
the * marks* of the notes in the red pocket-book, and 
could see them in the banking-house, that they were 
in paper, and put, along with many more papers, in a 
private part of the bank i that they were taken by a 
man at the bank, who put them aside, without making 
any entry or taking any further notice of them. She 
said, that the people at the bank did not mean to do 
wrong, but that it arose from the want of due atten- 
tion. Upon its being stated, that she might be 
wrong, and requesting her to look elsewhere, she 
said, that it was of no use ; that she could see they 
were in the bank, and nowhere else ; that she could 
not say anything else, without saying what was not 
true; and that if search was made at the bank, where 
she said, they would be found. In the evening, Mr. 
Arrowsmith, Mr. Makant, and Mr. Jones, came 
again, and she was again mesmerised, and again re- 
peated these particulars in their presence. 

^' Mr. Haddock then said to Mr. Arrowsmith, that 
he was tolerably confident the clairvoyante was right; 
and that he should recommend him, to go next day to 
the bank, and insist on a further search ; stating, that 
he felt convinced, from inquiries he had made, that 
his cashier had brought the money there. Mr. Ma* 
kant, also, urged the same course on Mr. Arrow- 
smith. 

''The following morning, Tuesday, August 28th, 
Mr. Arrowsmith went to the bank, and insisted on a 
further search. He was told, that after such a search 
as had been made, it was useless ; but that, to satisfy 
him, it should be made again. Mr. Arrowsmith left 
for Manchester ; and, after his departure, a farther 
search was made, and among a lot of papers, in an 
inner room at the bank, which were not likely to 

6 



122 SOMHOUtM AVB P8TCHXI81I. 

hATe been meddled with again, probably, for years, or 
which might nerer have been notioed again, were 
foimd the noiee and bill, wrapped m a paper y put tu 
the clmrvoymUe had described them.*' 

The publication of the above, caused considerable 
sensation in the neighbomrhood, where all the parties 
were so well known, and the main &cts so well au- 
thenticated* An attempt was made, in a Manchester 
newspaper, eridently under the inflnence of some par- 
ties connected with the bank, to throw discredit on 
the statements, and to proye that clairvoyance had 
nothing to do with the discovery ; bat these remarks 
were ably refuted by the Bolton correspondent of the 
'' Manchester Ghuurdian,'' who observed, that whatever 
might be thought of the theory ^ the faeU were unde^ 
niable. An insinuation was thrown out, that, by its 
being said, Emma asked for " the papers/' it was evi- 
dent that something was told about tliOBe papers; 
but not a word was said to her on the subject ; in- 
deed, I did not myself know that more than one paper 
was contained in the letter, until Mr. Lomax said that 
Emma was right in saying there were three. The rea- 
son of her asking for the papers, the reader will see 
further on^ p. 129, and will there find, that the hand- 
writing of persons was the usual medium for putting 
her upon an inquiry. In this newspaper it was stated, 
that the bank was in the habit of receiving two copies 
of a Banker's Circular; that one had been opened, 
and that^ it was supposed, the envelope, containing 
Mr. Arrowsmith's money, must have been taken for 
the other, and put aside unopened ; and that, on the 
day in question^ it was found, with other unopened 
papers^ on the mantelpiece, in the manager's private* 
room. How the mistake arose formed no part of the 
inquiry; the object was, to ascertain where the money 
woe to be Jbund, and, according to their statement, it 
woe Jmndjust as Emma had described it the day before. 
Her own words were, — " I cannot tell you any more 
than I have ; the notes are in a paper, among other 
papers, in the little room, (or back room, I cannot 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIMENTS. 123 

actly recollect which^) at the bank^ and that if she 
could read, she would tell us what the other papers 
-were/' This is what induced me to urge Mr. Arrow- 
smith to insist on a further search : but^ for obvious 
reasons^ I requested him not to mention the dairvoy- 
once. There was no intention to injure any one at 
tlie bank; and^ lest any unpleasant feeling should 
axise^ a great deal that the clairvoyante said^ of the 
person who took the money^ &c.^ was suppressed^ al- 
though strikingly characteristic and amusing. I never 
^was in the baiSc; but I was told that Emma^s descrip- 
tion of the parties there was very correct. A highly 
respectable gentleman^ well known in Bolton^ un- 
known to me^ wrote to all the parties concerned^ and 
obtained from them a written attestation of what each 
knew. These documents he kindly shewed me ; and 
he observed^ that^ upon the strictest inquiry^ he found 
that the published report was really understated. 
This^ for the reasons above stated^ was the case. The 
only difference I could find in his papers and my pri- 
vate notes^ was in the date of one of the sittings. 
But^ as he obtained his information from the parties^ 
a few weeks afterwards, and I made notes directly 
after the transaction, I incline to think my date cor- 
rect. Mr. Lomax thought Emma must be in error, 
in saying that he left the money at the bank, as it 
turned out, they were enclosed in an envelope, as she 
said; but, as he had no recollection of what he did 
with them, nor could the messenger recollect whether 
he had been sent, it is very likely that Emma was 
right in every particular. Mr. Lomax told me, that 
when Emma said, they had taken the money at the 
bank, but made no entry , he thought she must then 
be wrong ; but here, also, she was right ; and it is not 
improbable that the mistake may have occurred in 
the way stated in the Manchester paper. Mr. Arrow- 
smith assured me^ that he met one of the bank autho- 
rities before arriving at the bank, on the very day of 
the discovery, and was again told that further search 
was useless, and that they could not have taken the 

6* 



124 80HNOLI8M AND F8TCHEI8M. 

money in without having some entry of it : and it 
was solely the clairvoyant revealment which induced 
him to go and request further search. Mr. Arrow* 
smith does not enter into the theory, or psychology, 
of the case^ but he is satisfied of the pacts. 

It is sometimes amusing to read the objections of 
sceptics^ who are^ generally, porofonndly ignorant of 
mesmeric phenomena. Thus, in the '' Lancet/' I 
saw a quotation from a country newspaper, in which 
a writer observes, that in all such reports as those 
just narrated, there is always something that discloses 
the fraud, &c., and this he fancies he has discovered 
in the "Chronicle" report. The ckdrvoyante, he 
says, stated that ''the people at the bank did not 
mean to do wrong,'' thus pretending to know the in- 
tentions, which was an attribute belonging to God 
only, &c. I am quoting from memory, and am not 
sure of the exact words, but they were to the above 
/ effect. Now, a very limited acquaintance with the 
f^ higher mesmeric phenomena, would convince any one, 
that a general perception of character is one of the 
most common characteristics of really clairvoyant 
t subjects. Parties have repeatedly expressed their 
' surprise, at hearing the general character of persons 
known to them, but unknown both to myself and 
^ Emma, so correctly delineated by her. 
f The following singular case is similar to several 

more that have occurred. About the beginning of 
October, 1849, Mr. Horrocks, innkeeper, Bradshaw- 
gate, Bolton, introduced to me two country-looking 
persons, whom I at first supposed were his personal 
friends. But it appeared that they were strangers, 
just arrived in the town, seeking assistance from 
clairvoyance, and that they had entered the Shake- 
speare Inn, Mr. Horrocks' house, quite accidentally^ 
and stated their business, and asked if the discovery 
of the £650 was true, and where the writer was to be 
foimd ? Mr. Horrocks told them it was generally con- 
sidered true in Bolton, and afterwards brought them 
up to my house. I found the female was a widow, 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIMENTS. 125 

having a farm in the north-western part of Yorkshire^ 
aboat twenty miles from the Low Gill Station, on the 
Liancaster and Carlisle Railway^ from which station 
they came ; and her companion was a neighbouring 
farmer^ who had accompanied her, to render her any 
necessary assistance. I was then informed, that the 
Twidow had received £40 for wool sold; the money 
consisted of eight £6 notes of the Settle or Craven 
Bank, and these she had put into a purse, and placed, 
for safety, under some clothes, in a drawer, in a spare 
bedroom. About six weeks before coming to me, the 
money had been stolen from the drawer, but nothing 
else was taken, nor were the clothes disturbed. The 
poor woman felt her loss greatly, but had no clue to the 
thief. A travelling Scotchman occasionally slept at the 
farmhouse, when business brought him that way, and 
fae had slept in this room some little time before the 
loss was discovered; and it was surmised that he 
might have taken the money, but there was no evi- 
dence that he had, or that he knew of the money 
being in the drawer. The local newspapers contained 
an account of the recovery of Mr. Arrowsmith's money; 
and the perusal of this, led the farmer to persuade his 
neighbour to go to Bolton. Had they have written 
to me, I should have dissuaded them ; as, for reasons 
presently to be stated, I had ceased trying any ex- 
periments in cases of loss or robbery; but, as they 
were very urgent in requesting me to try this case, 
and had travelled nearly a hundred mUes for the pur- 
pose, I consented. 

In the evening the trial was made. I put the 
widow into connection with Emma, similar to the 
proceeding in Mr. Wood's case, and told her that 
some money had been lost, and we wanted to know, 
where it was taken from, and who took it ? She was 
soon mentally present at the farm; and, being fond of 
country scenery, &c., she appeared to enjoy the trip 
much. She began to speak of the hilly country, the 
sheep, the cows, &c., as though she was among them, 
and some of the cows she actually described, and, I 



126 80MNOU8M AND P8TCHEI8M. 

was told, very aocorately. She then went on to the 
robbery. She said where the money had been put, 
stated the kind of clothes in the drawers, and said 
they were not nunpled ; discovered what the money 
had been received for, and entered into a cnrious sort 
of conversation with the sheep, telling them, that they 
had better have kept the wool on their backs ; she 
then described, very correctly, the person who had 
bought the wool, and from whom the money was re- 
ceived ; and, at last, came to the thief. She described 
his personal appearance, and what appeared to be his 
occupation; and said, that he knew aU about the 
farmhouse, and then described how he got into the 
room, and took the money. After going on for some 
time, the farmer b^an to recognize the robber, from 
Emma^s descriptions, and said to the widow, it is so- 
and- so, mentioning a name. She thought not. He 
desired me to ask Emma, If the man, she saw, had 
any hair mider his chin? ''Yes; fuzzy stuff :'^ was the 
reply. He now felt more assured, and many more 
questions were put, — ^as to. Whether he was married ? 
— ^What his w^edid? — What were his occupations, 
&c. The answers to which all tended to shew that 
the farmer was right in his conjecture.. The widow 
then said, that the man who answered to Emma's de- 
scription, occasionally worked for her ; that she was 
about employing him the next week, and that his wife 
was in the habit of charing for her. The farmer said, 
he perfectly understood Emma's account of the way 
the man entered the room ; there was a low lean-to 
building just under the window, through which any 
one might enter ; in fact, it had been common to get 
into the roomi that way ; and that the room window 
was not fastened, no one thinking of the houses being 
robbed in those parts. Emma further said, that 
the man felt, at times, sorry for what he had 
done ; that he had been thinking of putting the money 
back again; but, still, had not done so ; that he had 
sometimes concealed it on his person, and in other 
places, which she mentioned. The sitting that even- 



CLAIEVOYANT EXPERIMENTS* 127 

ing occupied about an hour and ar half; and^ by way 
of farther trials another inquiry was made the follow- 
ing^ mornings but nothing more was elicited. 

The widow now said^ that she would go to the man 
wliom Emma had pointed out, upon her return home, 
and endeavour to recover her money. She said this 
man lived about a mile from her residence : that she 
luiew him weU ; and that she thought she could per- 
suade or frighten him to restore the notes. I ex- 
pressed great doubts of this, as, if the real delinquent 
Iiad been pointed out, it was so easy for him to remove 
all proof of his guUt, by burning, or otherwise de- 
stroying the notes and purse. She, however, felt con- 
fident of succeeding, if it was the right person ; but, 
she said if she did not, she had been so much surprised 
and interested in Emma^s clear description of aU the 
circumstances as far as she knew them, that she should 
not regret the expense and trouble of her journey. 
I heard nothing further of the transaction, until 
October 31st, when I received a letter, dated from the 
Tillage, on October 27th, and bearing the Settle post- 
mark of October 30th, of which the following is a 
verbatim copy. I suppress the names, as when the 
pmrties were in Bolton, the widow expressed some fear 
of her enquiry being known in the wild district in 
which she lived. '^To Mr. Haddock. Sir, — accord- 
ing to promise, when Mrs and I were at your 

place, you wished me to let you know the residt of 
the matter; we arrived at home on the same day we 

left you ; — on the following, Mrs went to where 

the person resided according to the clairvoyante^s re- 
presentatioUy who met the matter in the greatest degree 
of incivility — ^but, however, defaced the matter up to 
that degree of positive assurance, without any doubt 
wheUever, that the next morning it was thrown into 
the same room from whence it was taken, through a 
small crevice in the window, the whole sum and purse 
just as it was taken, — ^which is certainly a most for- 
tunate return of loss for the poor woman. She wishes 
to be kindly remembered to the clairvoyante, and 



128 aOMNOLISM AND 78TCHEI8M< 

shall consider herself greatly indebted to her for the 
assistance given in the case. Begging both our best 
respects to you^ as well as for all ci\dlity received at 
yonr honse. And should ever any case of a similar 
description occur to either of us, we shall undoubtedly 
make appUcation to you for her assistance for recovery. 
I am^ dear sir, yours most respectfully, Henry '^ 

There is no legal proof, that the man pointed out by 
the clairvoyante actually took the money; but there 
can be no reasonable doubt of her correctness, when 
all the circumstances of the case are considered. Had 
the money been in gold, it could easily have been paid 
away, or exchanged, without risk of detection; but 
local notes, in the possession of such a person espe- 
cially, were scarcely negotiable without great risk. 
Hence, probably, the determination to restore them, 
rather than destroy them. And we may charitably 
hope, that a repentant feeling acted in unison with 
the fear of detection. To be quite sure, that I had 
not been in any way imposed upon, I sent a letter, 
after the lapse of a twelvemonth, by post to the 
widow, addressed to the village, and received firom her 
an answer corroborating exactly the above letter. 
She said the purse was found upon the floor, very 
near the drawers from which it had been t^en. 

As above intimated, I had several similar cases; 
one where the clairvoyante told the exact sum in 
pieces of gold in the missing purse, and said the party 
who took it had become alarmed, and had concealed 
the purse, but that one piece of money had been ab- 
stracted : and eventually the purse was discovered in 
such a place as she had described, and one piece »hort. 
Here the collateral evidence was so strong, that the 
suspected party was accused ; and while denying the 
theft, admitted that every thing else the clairvoyante 
said was true. In making these sort of inquiries, my 
principal object was to test Emma's powers, and not 
to meddle with matters more properly belonging to 
the Police. Hence, when I found parties divulging 
the information they had received, before they had 



CLAIBVOTANT EXPSBIMSNTS, 129 

obtained the necessary legal proofs I thought it 
prudent to decline all such experiments. It appeared 
to me, that in robberies by practised thieves, where 
the stolen articles quickly change hands, there would 
be Uttle chance of either proving or disproving Emma's 
statements. Besides^ as she does not know the^^- 
sons or places she mentally sees^ (unless previously 
known to her in the wakeful state)^ her descriptions 
would be of no practical use^ except where the delin* 
quent could be fully recognized from her statements, 
and was not a common, or practised thief. There 
was also a probability of misunderstanding her de- 
scriptions, and thence a liability to accuse an innocent 
party; and this is what I most particularly endea- 
voured to guard against. Besides, Emma began to 
feel great alarm, lest thieves or their associates, should 
waylay her, and do her some serious injury. That 
the fear of detection by means of clairvoyance, had an 
influence on some dishonest persons, I had an oppor- 
tunity of knowing. On one occasion, a person, a few 
miles from Bolton, had lost some property or money, 
and from the circumstances of the loss, suspected that 
some one in his employ was the thief, but had no clue 
to any particular individual. He stated to all in his 
employ, his intention of going to Bolton to ascertain 
the delinquent, and came to me with a note of intro- 
duction from a respectable inhabitant of Bolton ; but, 
for the reasons above stated, I did not make the en- 
quiry. Some time after, the gentleman who intro- 
duced him, told me, that on going home he found his 
property restored, 

Emma has frequently been directed to find persons 
in distant parts of the globe, and, whenever it could 
be done, the hand-writing, or something else belong- 
ing to these individuals, was given her to form the 
medium of connection. The reason of my using the 
hand-writing for this purpose is as foUows. On the 
4th of August, 1848, a gentleman of Bolton brought 
a letter written by a lady, the wife of a physician in 
Gloucestershire. This lady had heard of other clair- 



180 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHKI8M* 

voyants describing the diseases of distant people^ by 
using their hand-writing as a medium of connection: 
and she was desirous of ascertaining whether Enuna 
could see and describe her state. Emma put the letter 
over her head, as she used to do with the pictures, and 
carefblly felt it with her right fingers, and then, said, 
'^ it was a lady's up and down strokes'' — her phrase at 
that period for writing. She described the kdy, as 
to her personal appearance, accurately; even to a 
small blemish occasioned by an accident; the internal 
organs of the body; an anection of the spine under 
which she was labouring; the situation and appearance 
of the place where she resided, and many more par- 
ticulars. The accuracy of her descriptions was ad- 
mitted by the doctor, and, subsequently, I had an 
opportunity personally to yerify some of the state- 
ments. The envdope was directed by the doctor; 
him she described correctly, both as to his personal 
character, general pursuits, and literary tendencies. 
This was an entirdy new experiment, and finding the 
result so unexpected and striking, it led to many 
more, some of which were more remarkable. Once, 
some ladies from Manchester, gave her the hand- 
writing of a clergyman, at Archangel, in Russia. 
She described the individual correctly, as to his per- 
sonal appearance, and little peculiarities, and her 
remarks as to the climate and season were correct. 
The writing was taken from her, and the writing of 
another gentleman in Australia was given to her; she 
was soon mentally there, described the climate and 
season, and expressed her surprise at finding the sea^ 
sons reversed, when compared with England, having 
no knowledge of the effect of latitude and longitude 
in altering season and time. She appeared to have 
got to a great sheep farm, and her remarks were very 
homely, but very graphic. Nothing was said to her 
of the localities or employments of the writers. At 
another time, a letter written by a gentleman at Cairo, 
was put into her hand. She soon said it was written 
by a gentleman, which she had no means of knowing 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIMENTS. 131 

by her normal knowledge^ and she described him, as 
to the condition of his healthy and the place where he 
was residing, together with the climate, and appearance 
of the people there, even to the pecuUar veil worn by 
the Egyptian ladies, at which she expressed great sur- 
prise. The correctness of her statement, as to the 
gentleman^s health, that is, of a severe illness under 
which he had been labouring, was ascertained from a 
subsequent letter, and further particulars on the gen- 
tleman's arrival in England. But of this, as well as 
many more similar cases, no notes were taken, so that 
much corroborative evidence has been lost ; besides, 
but few opportunities occur for proving the correct- 
ness of the details in these distant enquiries. Only 
oue such case had occurred when the first edition of 
this work went to press. It was as follows. 

A young man sailed from Liverpool for New York. 
His parents immediately afterwards remitted hun a 
sum of mon^ by the mail-steamer; but they were 
subsequently informed that he had not applied for it, 
nor had anything been heard of him, although the 
ship in which he sailed had long arrived. In a state 
of anxiety the yotmg man's mother came twenty miles 
to Bolton, to see whether, by Emma^s means, she 
could learn any thing of him. After a little time, 
Emma found him ; described his appearance correctly, 
and entered into so many details, as to induce his 
mother to rely upon her statements, and to request 
me to make enquiries at intervals of about a fortnight. 
I did so, and traced him by her means to several 
places, and the mformation thus acquired, I trans- 
mitted to the parents. On the 24th of January, 
1849, I received a note from the young man's father, 
informing me that a letter had arrived from his son, 
and that ''it was a most striking confirmation of 
Emma's testimony from first to last.'' Since then the 
young man has returned to England ; and when the 
details were mentioned to him, he said he could dis- 
tinctly recollect some, while others he did not remem- 
ber. Atthe first interview, Emma said that the young 



182 80MNOLI8M AKD F8TCHEI8M. 

man and two others whom he knew^ and^ if I recollect 
aright, went out with him, were amusing themselves 
by weighing themselves, llus little incident, he said, 
he distinctly remembered. Emma also, by some 
means, got to know very nearly the name of the place 
where he was residing. She said it was ViU, or Phil. 
something. I thought of Philadelphia, not knowing 
that the family had been to America, and to the older 
eastern states, and his mother never mentioned it 
until after her son's return. But, it appeared, he had 
made at once for this part, and resided the most of 
the time at Centreville, in Connecticut, I believe. 

The case now about to be narrated, is one of the 
best attested cases I have had; and, perhaps, psycho- 
logically , the most interesting of its kind. In June, 
1849, Mr, Greorge Toulmin, the conductor of the 
" Bolton Chronicle,' ' expressed to me a wish to be a 
witness of a clairvoyant experiment; and said, that 
he had by him, a letter received from an uncle who 
had gone to California. I at once consented to his 
wish ; and observed to him, that I thought such a let- 
ter would form a medium for an interesting sitting. 
Unknown to me, Mr. Toulmin made notes of this^ and 
of two subsequent sittings, at which he was present, 
and printed them, at the expense of Mrs. Willey. 
These printed notes, a few copies of which have been 
preserved, now remain in evidence of Emma's clair- 
voyant powers. I will first literally transcribe them, 
and afterwards make such remarks as will be neces- 
sary to enable the reader fully to understand the 
case. 

" Some notes of three interviews with Emma, the 
clairvoyante, at Mr, Haddock's, Cheapside, Bolton. — 
Interview 1st. June 26th. — This day I saw Mr. 
Haddock, and remarked to him, that I should like to 
put ^Emma's' powers to a trial; and that I had some 
writing in my possession, particulars about the writer 
of which I was anxious to obtain. I rather think I 
said he had gone to California. Mr. Haddock re- 
marked, that I had better not say anything more to 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIMENTS. 133 

him^ but come up in the evening between six and 
seven ; he would not make any communication to her 
on the subject, but let me present the letter, and 
watch the result. When I got there, Mr. H. said he 
did not think Emma would be in a very good state that 
night ; she had not been very well; was about to visit 
her father in a week or two; was very busy in conse- 
quence; and, as he wished to send her home well, and 
in good humour, he should not like her to remain long 
in the mesmeric state. Mr. H. then introduced me 
to !Emma, who expressed a wish that she should not be 
kept long mesmerised, and seemed, in fact, somewhat 
unwilling to submit to it at all. Mr. H. promised she 
should not be detained more than half an hour, when 
she reluctantly consented. Mr. H. having produced 
the requisite state, I gave Emma an envelope, con- 
taining an address, in the handwriting of Mr. Joseph 
WiUey, of [Mersey Terrace,] Seacombe; who sailed 
from Southampton, on board the 'Thames,' for Cali* 
fomia, via Panama. Mr. Haddock said, it was wished 
to be known where the writer of that was ? and what 
he was then doing? Emma opened the envelope, found 
the side on which the direction was written, placed it 
on the upper part of her forehead, and remained in 
that position, without speaking, for, probably, ten mi- 
nutes. At length she said, — ' O, I have found you 
at last. Why, I have been seeking you where the 
oranges grow ; what a long way you have come.' (I \ 
may here remark, that if is often difficult to gain a .; 
proper idea of what the girl meant to convey ; first, / 
because she appeared to be holding an imaginary con- ) 
versation with some one, we, of course, only hearing 
her remarks ; so that what had been said to her^ we 
bad to guess by what she said in reply. Then, in addi- 
tion to many mispronounciations of words, she offcei 
lisps, so that you hear only half a word; and her com- 
mand of language is so limited, that even when she 
appears to be labouring, at the risk of her Ufe, to give 
birth to an idea, she fails to satisfy either herself or 
you, whatever she may do to the party with whom 



134 8OMN0LI8M AND P8TCHBI8M. 

she is^ or affects to be^ conyersing.) [Much of this 
peculiarity has now passed away. — J. W. H.] She 
proceeded : ' What a nice place this is ! What ; you 
don't think so ? You must be a queer man not to 
like it. Of some things you like^ and some you don't.' 
Emma then described the route taken to arrire where 
they were. I am not sure I caught her meaning 
exactly. She said^ the writer had to go in a ' wooden 
house' (a ship) a very long way in this direction (wav- 
ing her hand from right to left, at an angle of about 
forty or forty-five degrees.) That he then turned a 

littlcj describing it thus. She occupied some time 

in describing the difficulties of this short distance. 
The pith of her remarks was, that she could not under- 
stand how they managed to get on, as the water was 
flowing strongly against them, and the vessel, or boat, 
was only impelled by men ' putting sticks' (oars) out 
of the side. After landing, she complained of its being 
very warm ; and, I think, gave some vague description 
of the town, which, however, I have forgotten. She 
said, the people were very sulky-looking. She re- 
marked (speaking of Mr. Willey), * Really, you are a 
very pleasant man ; you are one of the best natured 
men I ever met with. Tou laugh so pleasantly one 
would think you were not more than thirty, though I 
know you are much more. I'll go further with you.' 
Severtd times, after sitting a short time, as if listening, 
Emma broke out into a hearty laugh, and made such 
remarks as, — 'What a joking man you are— good 
humoured — pleasant, &c. :' and she seemed exceed- 
ingly pleased with his company. From her observa- 
tions, it appeared, that the writer again embarked in 
a 'wooden-house,' but of a different kind to that which 
he had been in before ; for there appeared to be men 
climbing up masts (she did not speak of them as 
'masts,' but so described them, as shewed us what 
she meant) . She entered into a lengthy expostulation 
with the writer, in consequence of his going up the 
masts; could not comprehend how he coidd stand 
without danger of falling; was sure he need not do it: 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIMENTS. 185 

and recommended him to let the others go up instead; 
she inquired if they had hands in their feet; and 
pursued these remarks to a somewhat absurd length. 

'^ In a while^ Emma became greatly excited^ moved 
firom side to side in her chair^ and seemed to have 
met with something that filled her with astonishment^ 
not unmixed with fear or dread. She then said^ 
' What kind of a place are we at now ? What wicked 
looking people !^ She would not stop among such a 
set of folks on any account. ' Why, they will think 
nothing at all, when you are asleep, of coming and 
catting your head off, and killing you !' (She re- 
peated that statement several times.) Presently she 
exclaimed, — 'Eh! whatever are they doing? Scraping 
sand together, I declare. What ! and have you come 
all this way to get sand ? Why, you may get plenty 
at New Brighton and Lytham, without any trouble.' 
She could not (at first) see any difference between 
that sand and the sand at New Brighton. It was 
heavier. (Emma then affected to take up a handful 
of sand at New Brighton, and another at the place 
where she was discoursing; she held her hands for 
some time, as if there was something heavy in the 
one, and light in the other ; allowing them to vibrate 
in the manner usually done when persons are com- 
paring the weight of two articles in their hands; the 
New Brighton handful moving briskly, the other with 
apparent effort.) ' Yes, it was heavier. That hand- 
ful was worth fifty dolls. ? What's dolls. ? I never 
heard the word before; say it again, and speak it 
plainer. Fifty dollies ? (dollars.) What's a dolly; is 
it one of those things we fling up and play with ? I'll 
ask Mr. Haddock, when I go back, what a dolly is.' 
A good deal more was said ; she described the inha- 
bitants as being all colours; the worst looking set of 
folks she ever saw ; the ^ buildings,' wooden boards 
loosely put together ; and also the manner in which 
they separated the sparkling particles from other por- 
tions of the sand. She said, the writer of the du'ec- 
tion was well, quite fresh-looking, but the colour in 



186 80MNOLI8M AND PSTCHEISH. 

his &ce was not equally divided, some parts being 
much redder than others. She had great difficulty in 
describing the colour of his hair (wishing to be exact), 
and, at last, took up a piece of cotton print, and 
picked out a stripe of ooloor, which, she said, was some- 
thing like it, but not exactly ; and, I think, she was 
pretty correct. She inquired of him, ' Why he kept 
rubbing his arm in that manner?' He was making 
her arm ache, and she began, with her left hand, to rub 
her right arm, from the shoulder downwards. Mr. 
Haddock had to make a number of passes to take the 
pain away. She said, the writer had not yet got any 
of the sand ; which she never spoke of as containing 
gold, although she described the colour of the spark- 
ling particles in such a way as left the inference pro- 
bable. Ultimately, she warmly shook the writer by 
the hand (as if present with him), promising to come 
again and see him in a short time. 

'' Whilst Emma was pursuing this journey, she could 
not hear anything said to her, however loudly spoken. 
Any questions, therefore, had to be reserved until she 
had parted with the writer, and come back again So 
soon as she had come back, but before she was demes- 
merised, she began to accuse Mr. H. of having 
kept her longer than he had promised, and she insisted 
on looking at the clock, to see how much more than 
half an hour she had been mesmerised; she then 
looked through the floor at the clock in the cellar, and 
declared that she had been kept three quarters of an 
hour, three and half minutes ; which was exactly the 
fact. She was very much exhausted, and seemed to 
wish it over, so I had very little chance of putting 
any questions to her. I may state, however, that it 
appeared to me that she had passed through the test 
with success. I believe she had never heard of Cali- 
fomia at all; had little or no knowledge of the recent 
pother about its gold ; was not aware that the writer 
had gone there ; and yet she succeeded, much more 
vividly than I have been able to depict on paper, in. 
impressing us with the belief that she was on its 



CLATBVOTANT EXPERIMENTS. 137 

shores^ and describing what was actually taking place 
there. — G. T. 

" TifTERViEW 2d. June 29th. — After Mr. Haddock 
had introdaced us (Mrs. Willey and Mr. James Toul- 
min^) to Emma, she wished to know what we wanted 
her to do? Mr. H. informed her^ that we wished 
her to go in search of the gentleman that she found 
for Mr. Toulmin the other evening. She replied, 
' Oh^ I will go to him.^ Mr. H. placed in her hands 
Mr. Willey's last letter; which she laid on her fore- 
head, and remained in silence for some minutes. 
She then uttered a sudden exclamation of, * Oh dear, 
it was a very good job that the steamer was so 
near you. How did it happen that you fell into 
the water ? Ah ! I understand you now, — ^the boat 
went on one side, and you fell out. Poor thing! 
You look yery ill. You have been ill. Yes ; I dare 
say, you took cold with the wet : oh, yes : and the 
fi-ight together. Poor thing ! you have had a fever. 
No : she did not come to you. No ; it was not her 
spirit; she is not dead. O, you thought her spirit 
came, and wiped your face and neck, and that the 
tears were running down her white face. No : she is 
not dead, but you have been thinking about her, and 
she has been thinking about you. Ah! you were un- 
happy about your children. It was a great pity that 
you did not send any letters lately. No ; you could 
not write when you were in the fever; but what was 
the reason you did not write before? You did write, 
bat it did not go. Poor thing ! she will be sorry 
when she hears of your sickness. What is your 
name ? Mog, — Morg. — ^No. Morgan. What a queer 
name, I can hardly speak it.' (These observations 
appeared to refer to a Mr. Morgan, who embarked in 
the ' Thames' at the same time as Mr. Willey ; his 
name had not, however, been mentioned. Mrs. Wil- 
ley desired that Emma's mind might be directed to 
Mr. W., but it was with great difficulty that she 
could be drawn away from Mr. Morgan.) She re- 
mained in silence for about a minute, and then said. 



188 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHSI8M. 

—•'I have come to see you again. Are you rery 
well ? O^ dear ! yoa have been suffering firom rheu- 
matism since I saw yon/ Emma then very patheti- 
eally described Mr. W/s sufferings before he left 
home; and, taking Mrs. W.'s hand in her own^ she 
said^ — *this hand has been employed — rub— rub — 
rub.' She likewise said. That he was a very good 
gentleman : the other she did not like so well ; but 
this was a good man; and the people where he is 
think he is too good, and too generous; and they 
think that he should not be so kind to the people. 
She then said, — ' You are very well now. Well, have 
you got any of that dust yet ? O, you have got some, 
and you seem very careful about it, and you put it in 
a box. This is a rery nice place. Ton shake your 
head. It is very warm; but what queer looking folk!^ 
She then bid him good-bye ; but before Mr. H. de- 
mesmerised her, he asked her to go back again, and 
see what he was doing; which she did; and described 
certain goods which, she said, he had taken in trade 
there, but which he did not take from this country. 
When asked, how Mr. Willey became possessed of 
some of these goods; she said, Mr. W. had sold 
some goods to a man leaving the place, and had taken 
these instead of money. Several other things were 
also said. 

" Interview 8rd. July 9th. — The last letter from 
Mr. WiUey was presented to Emma, and she was re- 
quested to find him, and inform us (Mrs. Willey and 
Mr. G. and J. Toulmin,) how he was, and whether he 
was at the same place as previously. In a short time, 
after placing the letter on her forehead, she exclaimed, 
— ' O, I have come to see you again ; you have had 
more pains in your shoulders since I last saw you. 
Not in the same place as before. Before I go back, 
I wish to know if you have seen that gentleman again 
(referring to Mr. Morgan). He has not seen the other 

gentleman since. (Emma was told, that Mrs. W 

wished her to confine her attention to Mr. W .) 

She resumed : He seemed to be doing very well in 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIMENTS. 139 

business. Emma then entered into some details of a 
voyage that Mr. Willey had, but I failed to compre- 
hend Iier meaning. ' Have you sent any letter to 
Mrs. "Willey, or have you had one from her ? You 
had one from her. How long since ? Good while 
since, but you do not recollect how long. When you 
see her handwriting, you think it is her talking to you. 
You read it over and over, and think you cannot read 
it too much. She does so too. You are a very good 
gentleman, and often reading the Bible, and you feel 
wliat you read ; you are not one of those who read, 
and do not do it. There is a letter coming from Mr. 
Willey, sent off about five weeks ago. You have a 
deal to think about : was looking after the gold dust ; 
had got some.'' Emma seemed much displeased at 
Mr. W. giving his goods for ''that stuff/' and, 
on Mr. H. remarking, that he dare say Mr. W. 
was satisfied, she said, his were ' good goods.' After 
otlici^remarks, chiefly like the above, but in a varied , 
foravEmma shook hands with Mr. Willey, promising S 
to meet him again after her return from her native 
place, to which she was going on the following day. 
Before she was demesmerised, she was asked, in what 
sort of a vessel Mr. Willey performed the voyaee from 
Panama to San Francisco ? She replied, ^ In a X 
steamer.' It was then inqtiired, how long he stayed 
at Panama? This question led to a droll exhi- 
bition of offended dignity on the part of Emma; 
who^ to describe the length of time, counted one, 
two, three, on the first three fingers of her left 
hand, and when she came to the fourth, doubled it 
down, and then repeated the process, to signify that 
Mr. Willey had stayed there ' seven.' She did not 
say whether seven hours, days, weeks, months, or> 
years; and when Mr. H. inquired of her what 
she meant, she became irritated, rating him soundly, 
and saying he delighted to teaze her! An opportune - 
present of an orange, from Mrs. Willey, somewhat re- 
stored her to good humour, when she said she meant 
weeks, affirming that she had said so at the first. — 
G. T.'' 



II! 



I 



140 80MNOLI8H AND P8YCHEISM. 

Such^ with a few omissions^ for the sake of avoiding 
repetition, are the notes, printed at a time when there 
was no means of ascertaining their accuracy, beyond 
what is sometimes called mind-reading ; their subse- 
quent full verification, gives them an interest which 
did not then attach to them. The first sitting was 
not longer than the subsequent ones, but reported 
fuller. The preservation of the ver^ language used in 
some cases, and of Emma's peculiarities at that period, 
affords a good idea of the styles so to speak, of these in- 
quiries, and, as such, may interest future experimen- 
ters. In the first sitting, it will be seen, that although 
Emma was not told where the writer of the paper had 
gone to, there could be no doubt that her mind had 
rightly followed him. Mr. Willey did not himself go 
to '' the diggings,^' but he did trade with the gold 
dust, and, of course, that article would be the most 
prominent thing in the minds of parties at San Fran- 
cisco. Hence, no sooner had Emma entered into con- 
nection with the mind of a trader there, then she 
caught the idea, and went to the diggings herself; 
and most graphically did she describe the people and 
manners there ; especiaUy the mode of washing the 
I sand to obtain the gold ; a proceeding of which she 
V knew nothing in the wakeful state. Her valuation of 
the handful in dollars^ a money unknown to her, 
proves that she got the idea from parties there, just as 
the ideas in the mind of my relative, in London, sent 
her to the Palace. Here was a proof of direct mental 
communion, although thousands of miles intervened ! 
The second sitting is, however, psychologically , the 
most interesting. Here this mental communion 
comes out stronger, and unmistakeably. Not a word 
had been said of Morgan. Neither myself nor Emma 
knew that there was such a person in existence. And 
yet Emma began, unasked, to speak of him, and even 
discovered his name. I have since learnt, that in the 
letter which she held over her head, there was a refer- 
ence to this person, and that as both parties had gone 
from Liverpool, they had mutually arranged that each 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIMENTS. 141 

should mention the other in their respective letters ; 
that in case Mr. Morgan's letters should be lost^ Mrs. 
Willey shonld be able to give Mrs. Morgan some in- 
telligence of her husband^ and vice versa. Before Mrs. 
Willey came to me^ she had been applied to on behalf 
of Mrs. Morgan^ and hence knew that the latter had 
not heard from her husband^ at the same time that she 
had heard from Mr. Willey; beyond this, she then 
knew nothing. But about October, or November, 
Airs. Willey came again to Bolton, and called on me 
without Mr. Toulmin. She then informed me, that 
she had heard from Mrs Morgan, and learnt that her 
husband had been ill with a fever, and that that was 
the cause of his not writing to her. Here, then, was 
the first proof that Emma's conversation with Morgan 
was not mere imagination. But further proof was 
obtained. Mr. WUley began to find that Morgan's 
manners were not congenial to him, and, hence, he 
informed his wife, that he should have but little inter- 
course with him after they were settled ; and, in fact, 
he had almost, if not quite, ceased to know anything 
about him. But, unknown to me, Mrs. Willey had 
sent out, in a letter, a copy of the printed notes tran- 
scribed above. These were received by Mr. Willey 
at San Francisco, just on the eve of his departure for 
England. He was so surprised that he sought out 
Morgan, and was informed, by the man himself, that 
he had fallen overboard, and had had a fever, and in 
some state of delirium fancied that he saw his wife, 
and heard her call him, iust as Emma had said. This 
was mentioned b7Mr:Vme7at a family party, on 
his return to England, in the spring of the year 
(1850), and Mr. George Toulmin, who was one of the 
party, informed me of this remarkable corroboration. 
But since then I have seen Mr. Willey personally, and 
had from his own mouth an attestation of all I had 
beard. He said, that on the receipt of the printed 
paper, he shewed it to Col. Allen, the American post- 
master of San Francisco, to whom he was well known, 
who attested some of the statements there made, as 



142 80MNOLI8M AND PSTCHEISM. 

being matten of which he was cognizant. He men- 
tioned several drcumstances respecting Moi^an^ wMch 
were strikingly in harmony with Emma's statements. 
He also pointed out some especial details :— Thns^ as 
to Emma's expostolation with him for ascending the 
rigging, he said he was particularly strack. Owing 
to the concourse of persons, it was with great diffi- 
culty a passage could be obtained from Panama; but 
Mr. Willey having been accustomed to a sea-&ring 
life, gave him an advantage, and on that account^ he 
got forward when many more were detained behind ; 
and he said he did once go aloft to help to furl the 
sails, and instruct the sailors. Then, again, in cross- 
ing the Isthmus of Darien, the boats were propelled 
up the rapids of some jiver there, by men *'puitinff 
sticks " out of the side S Emma had described. The 
rubbing of his arms, also, had been a daily occupation, 
and he had traded in the way Emma had said. 

I found Mr. Willey a very respectable and religious 
man, not at all likely to be deceived or imposed upon 
by any fanciful statements. He expressed his willing- 
ness to corroborate the printed statements personally 
at any time ; but that he could not engage to answer 
letters. I found Emma's personal description very 
good, and was strack with the exact resemblance of 
his hair to the colour she had pointed out. It shoxdd 
also be stated, that Mrs. Willey did receive letters, as 
Emma said she would. In describing Morgan's ill- 
ness, Emma manifested the greatest sympathy, and 
entered into many details not recorded. I had no 
idea of whom she was talking, but saw clearly, that if 
it was Mr. Willey she meant, it would not at all agree 
with her previous statements; and I felt somewhat an- 
noyed, as Mrs. Willey had come from Seacombe, near 
Liverpool, to hear something about her husband, solely 
on the report she had received of the first interview 
with Mr. Toulmin. Whether it was the letter, in 
which the name occurred, but which wbs folded up, and 
even if open she could not read it, or whether it was 
the information that Mrs. Willey had received, but 



CliAlEVOTANT XXF2EIMENT8. 143 

not mentioned, that put Emma on the tracks I cannot 
say; but the state of the party soon drew forth her 
pity and sympathy. Altogether considered^ this case 
of Morgan^ s, is, in my estimation, the most inter- ^ V 
eating, and the most suggestive, of all the cases I ' — ^ 
haye witnessed. As regards the gold dust, when I 
found Emma expressing such surprise, on her return, 
I asked her what she saw in the dust ? She said, 
"If I were to file up sovereigns it would look Uke it/' 
And yet she did not seem to know that it was gold, 
until I told her, and she then seemed to doubt it. 

Soon after the discovery of Mr. Arrowsmith's 
money, I had many personal applications jfrom parties 
wious to discover where registers of baptisms, mar- 
riages, or burials, could be found, which were required 
ui suits at law, or equity. I fried several, and Emma 
appeared in some cases, to see the missing documents, 
and described the churches, &c., where they were to 
he found, but she could not name the locsJity. As 
the me of such enquiries, would entirely depend on 
being able to recognize the church meant, from her 
description, and this did not seem a very easy matter, 
I reftised, after a few trials, to put such questions. 
But, latterly, I was urgently solicited to try again, in a 
case, that has been some time in chancery, and already 
she has correctly pointed out three churches where the 
^®8ired registers were to be found. In this case we 
80t a clue to the locality, because she had been sent 
some months before, to see a person living near one 
of the churches, and in speaking of this particular 
church, said it was near where this person lived. I 
have seen the certificate of this register in the clergy- 
luan's hand-writing; and the date of the marriage 
^as June, 1746. It is probable that she may have 
heen right in other cases, if we could have discovered 
the locality she mentally saw. 

, To enumerate all the successful cases, would be 
tiring to the reader, and would, also, be monotonous; 
as there has been a great similarity in her mode of 
describing persons and places. Besides, the minority 



^ 



144 SOMNOLISM AND P8YCHEI8M. 

have been of mere private interest, and must liaye 
c been witnessed to be appreciated. Some, also, might 
^ be referred to mind-reading. But I would by no 
means wish the reader to suppose, that Emma was 
always successful. In some cases, there have been no 
means of proving or disproving her statements : in 
others she has apparently mixed up the past with the 
present, and thus presented a confused and erroneous 
picture. Sometimes imagination, or some false per- 
ception has intruded, and led her into error, which 
her peculiar state of vision prevented her from dis- 
covering, or even sometimes of rectifying when pointed 
out. Besides the errors arising from imaginative ac- 
tion, others might arise, from her not properly com- 
prehending what she really did see ; and again, her 
• want of adequate descriptive language, renders what 
she says, very apt to be misunderstood, and wrongly 
interpreted. The reader will thus see the difficulties 
attending these enquiries, and observe the many 
sources of error. Clairvoyance has its uses, and, un- 
fortunately, from the enthusiasm of some parties, and 
the knavery of others, its abuses. But it ought by 
' no means to be considered as equalling, much less of 
superseding, the investigations and conclusions of the 
( normal rational faculty. 
* In concluding this chapter it may be advisable to 
advert to the clairvoyant enquiries so frequently 
made, to ascertain the fate of the missing expedition 
under the command of Sir John Franklin. Owing to 
the interest generally felt on this subject, and the 
publicity given to some of the earlier experiments, it 
has awakened general curiosity, and given rise to 
expectations, some of which owe their foundation, 
entirely to erroneous reports. Soon after the dis- 
covery of Mr. Arrowsmith^s money, I was applied to 
by a naval gentleman, a private friend of Sb John 
IVanklin, to know if I thought any light could be 
thrown on the fate of his friend, by the aid of my 
clairvoyante. My reply, in substance was, that judg- 
ing from past experience, I thought if I had some 



CLAIRVOYANT EXPEBIMBNTS. 145 

writing of Sir John^s^ she could say whether he was 
dead or alive. My own idea then was, that the ships 
had foundered among the dangers of BafSn^s Bay^ or 
some other portion of the Polar Seas ; and that this 
-was the reason why no trace of their progress conld 
be fonnd. When Sir J. C. Ross returned from Leo- 
pold's Island^ without finding any trace of the missing 
ships even so far west^ this idea appeared to receive 
confirmation. I had^ therefore, concluded, that all 
^rere lost, and that Emma would at once say that she 
could not find the writer, and that he had " shelled," 
— lier phrase for dying. On the receipt of a portion 
of an old letter or envelope, containing an address in 
Sir John's handwriting, I tried her with it, and, to 
my surprise, she said the writer was alive, and, soon 
began to speak of him, and describe his situation, 
and very graphically, for one wholly ignorant of X 
ships, navigation,or geography. She spoke of the snow, 
ice, &c., of the place where the writer was; said that 
many with him were dead, but that he was alive, and 
expected to get away in about nine months, but that 
she could not say whether he would be able to do so, 
but that it appeared to her he would get home again. 
This nine months would bring round the time when 
the breaking up of the polar ice, might set the ships 
at liberty, and so far was probable. 

I communicated the result to Sir John's friend, 

who came to Bolton to be a personal witness of what 

she might say. We had several sittings, and it was 

during this trial, that, at this gentleman's suggestion, 

she was desired to ascertain the time there, which she 

professed, by some means, to be able to do ; and, by 

this means, we judged of the approximative longitude. 

A small map of North America was also given her ; 

and she put this over her head in the usual way, and 

then placed her finger just about the group of the 

Parry Islands, which nearly harmonised with the time 

she gave. This excited much surprise on our parts, as 

she knows nothing of the construction of maps, or of 

the meaning of longitude, or why there should be a 

7 



L 



146 80MNOLI8M AND PSTCHBISM. 

difference of time. Indeed^ many of her remarks on 
this last cirenmstanoe^ were highly amusing; and* she 
always felt the most pnzsled to know why the clocks 
should differ so. She thought they must be very bad 
ones. I afterwards tried her with a laiger map^ and 
with the Admiralty chart of the polar seas ; but she 
^ipeared to have lost this instinctiye sort of power to 
mark the place^ and I found that no reliance could be 
placed on her in this respect^ and she complained 
that she could not understand maps; so that the 
only way of fixing the locality, was by the time. 

The statements made in this gentleman's presence, 
were substantially the same as before made to me. 
What was very singular, in going to the polar regions, 
she appeared to go through a warm country first, and, 
ai^parently to change her course two or three times. 
The letter given her was an old one; and from this 
circumstance, and Sir John haying previously fiUed 
the situation of governor of Van Dieman's Land, it 
would seem, that she mentally followed him through 
other climes, and former scenes, to lus then situation. 
She appeared in this, and subsequent sittings, to give 
Sir J. C. Boss, a greater western longitude than Sir 
John Franklin; here she was evidently wrong; and it 
seems that she has frequently confounded the yaiious 
ships connected with the expedition and the search, 
and that hence the mistakes have arisen. She has 
since told me, that aU the ships seem to come be- 
fore her. Not long before the arrival of Sir J. C. 
Boss, she said, quite spontaneously, while talking, as 
was supposed, ideally with Franklin, '^Yes! I see there 
are two ships coming home, that wiU bring news.'' At 
that time I had not discovered the mode of conversing 
with her when away, and no questions were asked, as 
to what ships these were. Indeed, it was supposed, 
that it might refer to some returning whale ships. 
This statement of hers was reported in the ^* Man- 
chester Guardian," some time before the arrival of Sir 
J. C. Boss. She had spoken of a returning ship at 
the second sitting; but the ''North Stari' having 



CLAIRTOTANT EXPERIMENTS. 147 

been named by Sir John's fiiend, it was thought she 
saw that ship. I, therefore, expected some ship con- 
nected with the expedition, to arrive about the begin- 
ning of November, 1849, and in that month, both the 
ships, tinder the command of Sir J. C. Ross, reached 
England. After the publication of the account of their 
homeward passage, I questioned Emma very closely 
on the subject, and her replies left no doubt on my 
mind, that the ship she spoke of in September, was 
Sir J. C. Boss's. She said, the ship had got but a 
very little way from the ice when she first saw it, and 
that there was another behind. On referring to the 
dates, I found that Sir J. C. Boss had left the ice only 
the day before ! It appeared to me, that she had seen 
these ships, as frozen up, and again in their passage 
homewards, without thinking of the interveniug time, 
just as we often do in dreams, and that hence arose the 
confusion and mistake. 

Subsequently, I received a later letter of Sir John 
Franklin's; the last, I believe, received by Lady 
Franklin. This has formed the medium of all the 
later inquiries. After usiug this several times, it 
occurred to me, that if I had the handwriting of other 
parties with Sir John, it would serve as some sort 
of a test; for if she gave a different time, or 
placed them in a different situation to Sir John, it 
would shew, that very little, if any, reliance could be 
placed on her statements, as regarded time and situa- 
tion. Through the insteimentality of a gentleman 
holding a high official situation, several letters were 
procured, and sent me, written by different officers in 
Sir John's ship; also an official letter of Captain 
Crozier, the commander of the " Terror ;" and an- 
other, written by the commander of the ^' North Star," 
relieving vessel. These were accompanied with a per- 
sonal description of the different writers. I tried 
Emma with these, in the presence of several highly 
respectable gentlemen of Bolton, who made notes of 
her statements. I first gave a letter, written by an 
officer in Sir John's vessel. She found him; and di- 

7* 



148 SOHNOLI8M AND P8TCHEI8M. 

lectly spoke of him as being with Sir John j and the 
description she gave of him accorded so exactly with 
the written one^ that we were all much struck. An- 
other was given^ with the same result. I then gave 
another, without previously reading his personal de- 
scription, and I found her equally accurate. One of 
these gentlemen has reddish hair; this she compared to 
the hair of a neighbour's child, which is of that colour. 
The next day we had another test. I gaye her the 
commander of the " North Star's" letter, which, in 
appearance, was very much like the one bearing 
Captain Crozier's signature, as tfit was written by one 
of Sir J. Franklin's party ; and merely told her, we 
wished her to go again, and see if she could find this 
one. Her first observation, after trying, was remark- 
able : '^ TTiis letter want let me go the same way as the 
other /" It has since been found, that the " North 
Star" wintered on the north-east side of Baffin's Bay; 
while Franklin must have been far away to the west 
of Barrow's Straits. Six letters were given her, and 
in all, her description of the writers was correct ; her 
remarks often graphic and amusing. Thus, of Captain 
Fitzjames, of the " Erebus," she said, " He is a half- 
master^ but FrankUn is the master of all." She also 
spoke vividly of the polar scenery ; the " saltpetre 
lights" shooting up into the sky : the darkness and 
dreariness of the tract around the Pole ; the modes 
employed to entrap and destroy animals for food; 
using their blubber, or oil, for fuel and for light ; and 
other matters. One of these parties she spoke of as 
being dead : since then, of others. Sir John's per- 
sonal safety she attributed to the quantities of fish oil 
he was in the custom of drinking; a habit, which I have 
been since informed^ he acquired in former polar 
voyages. Her description of him, personally and 
mentally, I am also informed, was quite correct. 

During the past summer and autumn, she repeatedly 
asserted, that Sir John had got his ships afloat, and 
moving homewards, and she gave a decreasing longi- 
tude ; so much sOj that if the ship, she spoke of^ was 



GLAIBTOTANT EXPERIMENTS. 149 

his, lie ought to have been here by the end of No- 
vember. Here^ however, she seems to have made the 
same mistake as last year, and to have confounded 
other ships, connected with the discovery, with Sir 
John's own ship; for two vessels were actually nearing 
home, but they were the "North Star,^' and Lady 
Franklin's vessel, the "Prince Albert/' The most 
important of her statements, during the autumn, was 
made in the months of August and September. On 
the 24th of August, she said she could see a ship ap- 
j9roac^fn$r Franklin, which, to heVy did not seem along 
way off; and, that Sir John had not seen the " North 
Star.'' On the 7th of September, she said, that Sir John 
bad food, but, again, that he had not seen the " North 
Star.'' On the 15th of September, she told me, in a 
state of much excitement, that Sir John had been met 
by a ship, commanded by a " white headed" man, and 
relieved! It is now known, that the "North Star'' 
did not see Franklin; but, that about the time she 
said a ship was approaching him, traces of the gallant 
adventurer had been discovered at Cape Biley, situate 
at the north-west extremity of Barrow's Straits, con- 
siderably to the westward of the point to which Sir 
J. C. Ross penetrated, and directly in the track that 
she has led me to expect Franklin took; and it is 
now known, that the relieving ships had passed Cape 
Biley several days before she says Franklin was met. 
Soon after this, her statements appear to represent 
Franklin's ship, with two others near to it, one of 
which is the " white headed " man's ship, as being 
again frozen up. 

At present, what we do know, tends to confirm the 
0udn points of her statements. She has all along as- 
serted, and stiU continues to assert, that Franklin is 
alive, and her expectation of his coming home, but 
not the way he went. Notes of her statements are in 
the hands of several gentlemen; so that, when the 
time arrives for clearing up the mystery, there will 
be opportunity for doing so, without any possibility of 
collusion or mistake. When I began these inquiries, 



150 80HNOLI8M AND P8TCHEISM. 

they wisre quite of a novel kind^ both to myself and 
the daiiToyante; and hence^ necessarily, crude and 
imperfect : for the clairvoyant, like ordinary, percep- 
tion, becomes clearer and improved by fanuliaiity 
with any subject. I hare, therefore, regretted that 
ever any notice of this particular investigation, found 
its way into the public newspapers, because it has led 
to a host of imitators ; some of whom seem to have 
reflected the statements already known or reported. 
And I know, that Lady FrankUn has been pestered, 
and her feelings hurt, by persons intruding on her 
the most arrant nonsense and downright falsehoods, 
as pretended clairvoyant revealments. When the fate 
of Sir John is known, and, especially, if his safety is 
ascertained, which I hope will be the case, then the 
notes of these inquiries will receive additional in- 
terest. 

The diflcrence of time which Emma gave during the 
winter of 1849-50, and under every circumstance, was 
from 7 to 7ihours. Assuming this, as an approximation, 
it wiU give Sir John a western longitude of about 110 
degrees ; ' and other matters would make the latitude 
from 75 to 78 degrees north. She places the three 
ships now, about one hour, or more, eastward. She 
was an hour wrong in the longitude of the " North 
Star '/' and since I have found her confounding vessels 
one with the other, I have considered her statements 
of time as of little weight ; nevertheless, she has been 
tolerably correct on many other occasions : thus, in 
Mr. Willey's case, she gave a diflference of eight hours 
west for San Francisco; several times, about two 
hours east, for Port Natal; and, in several cases, in 
the United States and Canada, the error has only been 
a few minutes. 

As Sir John FrankUn has before been ice-bound in 
the Polar regions, and, as it would seem, from repeated 
experiments, that every action of a man^s life leaves 
an indelible trace, perceptible to a sufficiently lucid 
clairvoyante, and as I have found Emma mistaking the 
" marks,'' as she calls them, of a person, for the per- 



CLAI&YOTANT EXPERIMENTS. 151 

son^s actual presence at the time of inquiry^ it will be 
impossible to say how far she may, or may not, have 
mixed up the former expedition with the present, 
until certain intelligence arrives by which to solve 
tlie problem. On the larger map, soon after I re- 
ceived it, she pointed out Regenfs Inlet as the position 
of Pranklin. He was frozen up in that place, I believe, 
in the former expedition; but the time she gave, placed 
him farther west, and it is not probable that he is 
tliere now. I sometimes suspect, that in giving a de- 
creased longitude, making a difference in time of about 
one hour, she may have had her perception directed 
to the present situation of the ships, forming the last 
relieving expedition ; and, as all these vessels are, in 
her mind, grouped round Franklin as a centre, she may 
have erroneously given him a different position to that 
assigned in the winter of 1849-50. But all mast be 
considered as conjecture until the arrival of actual 
information. 



CHAPTER VII. 

CLAIRYOTANCB, AS APPLIED TO PHYftlOLOeT AND MBDICINK. 

Evert practical physiologist will admits that there 
are mauy curious points^ connected with the functions 
of various parts of the internal structure of the human 
body^ which it would be desirable to know, but which 
can hardly be understood, because it is impossible to 
see these parts while living and in action. The 
medical practitioner, also, would frequently be glad to 
learn the cause of perplexing symptoms; to know 
exactly the seat and nature of disease, that he may be 
enabled to apply the most appropriate remedy. As 
he cannot see the cause of disease, he uses the stethe- 
scope, in order to enable him to compensate, by hear- 
ing , for the absence of seeing. In both these cases, 
the services of a sufficiently lucid clairvoyante, may be 
of the greatest use. And, although the clairvoyante 
may not fully understand the nature of the objects 
seen, the educated practitioner can hardly fail to ap- 
preciate the description, and estimate the morbid ap- 
pearances at their true value. 

In the case of Emma, it was not long after the dis- 
covery of her lucidity, before I observed that she 
sometimes noticed the internal structure of the body. 
One evening, she began to describe my lungs, as 
"pink things, fuU of holes like a sponge, with air in the 
holes, and thousands of little veins in all directions.'^ 
She said, the right lung was not so good a colour 
as the left, and that "it stuck at the middle flap.'* 
This I considered to be the case, having twice suffered 
from inflammation on that side of the chest, and, 
therefore, thought she might but be giving utterance 
to my ideas. But I soon found that this was not 
so; but, as in the case of the pictures, she really 
did see what she described. I asked her some ques- 



CLAIRVOYANCE IN MEDICINE. 153 

tions relative to the hearty which she accurately de- 
sc^bed^ both as to the auricles and yentricles; but, as 
might be expected, in very homely language, yet suf- 
ficiently intelligible to any one acquainted with the 
anatomy of that organ. Thus, she called the auricles 
'* tJie ears'* and the ventricles ''the meaty partJ* She 
also clearly distinguished the difference between the 
arterial and venous blood, and the situation of each in 
the heart; calling one, ''tfie light sidCy* the other, 
'* the dark side,*' I thought her at fault once, but 
foand that, while I was thinking about the heart, and 
expecting a description of some of its parts, she had 
^raudered to the windpipe, with its rings. It was 
some time after this discovery, before it could be used 
without inconvenience; for when her attention was 
directed to the internal organs of the body, the 
strangeness of the sight, together with the universal 
motion, and circulating blood, so terrified her, that 
she would tremble from head to foot ; and even when 
awakened, complained of being ill and frightened, 
without knowing the cause ; and would inquire, what 
I had been doing to her, while in the mesmeric state. 
But, by degrees, she became familiarised with these 
investigations, and soon was able to examine the in- 
ternal organs calmly, andjwithout fear. Her manner, 
on these occasions, was quite different to what it was 
in other experiments. It was always serious and kind; 
her language soft, but, from her want of education, 
imperfect. Had she received an anatomical educa- 
tion, her gift would be more valuable; or, rather, 
more accurate descriptions might be obtained : but, 
on the other hand, her want of education proves that 
she does not derive the knowledge of the internal or- 
ganism of the body, which she evinces, from her pre- 
viously stored memory. 

The faculty by which Emma described the internal 
condition of the body, in such cases as above alluded 
to, is what I have distinguished as lucidity. The first 
time she ever evinced a distant perception of the in- 
ternal condition of the organism, was in the case of 

7** 



154 80MNOLI8M AND PSYCHEtSM. 

the physician's lady^ mentioned at p. 129. This was 
done chiefly for experiment ; but on the 29th of Sep- 
tember^ 1848, an opportunity was afforded for an en- 
tirely new^ and unexpected manifestation of Emma^s 
powers, and in a more serious case. A highly respect- 
able gentleman, residing at, and well known in, Man- 
chester, having, at that time, a daughter seriously ill 
with a cerebral disease, which baffled the ordinary 
medical treatment, and which, in addition to bodily 
infirmity, had produced a state of insanity, had been 
recommended to try, whether, by clairvoyance, a mode 
of cure could be discovered. He came to Bolton on 
the 28th ; but Emma being then in a state of trance^ 
to be subsequently described, he could not obtain the 
information sought. He left with me a few pencil 
marks by the lady, as a means of forming a medium 
of connection. On the date above, I gave this paper, 
with the marks on it, to Emma, and asked her, if she 
could find the person who made the marks, and tell me 
what was the matter with her. I said nothing about 
doing her good, for, at that time, I had no idea of her 
selecting any remedies. She soon found the lady ; 
described accurately the external symptoms of the 
patient, and also her perception of the internal con- 
dition of the brain, to which organ she referred the 
whole cause of illness. After recommending various 
mesmeric passes, she exclaimed, pointing, at the same 
time, towards the ceiling of the room, — "There is 
what will cure that lady, along with mesmerism. Eh! 
what little bottles !'' These she described as contain- 
ing little things, like the small comfits called " thou- 
sands.'^ I said, " Have I anything like them in the 
surgery ?" ''No! you have nothing like them.'' 
'^ Where can they be obtained?" " There — in that 
big town (pointing towards Manchester), in that shop 
with a head in the window ; they are kept there in a 
drawer.^' It would not have occurred to me what 
medicine she meant, but that, in the previous month; 
when in London, I had been shewn, by a lady much 
interested in mesmerism, and especisdly the higher 



CLAIRVOYANCE IN MEDICINE. 155 

phenomena of clairroyance^ a case of homoeopathic 
mediciiiQB. I do not recollect ever before seeing any; 
and t was^ at that time, quite ignorant as to the mode 
of preparing and using them. I am also certain, that 
in her wakeful state, Emma knew nothing about, nor 
had ever seen, any of these medicines. The shop, I 
subsequently found, was Mr. Turner's, homoeopathic 
chemist, Piccadilly, Manchester; and in the shop 
window was a bust o£ Hahnemann, the founder of 
homcBopathy. But I was then ignorant that there 
was such a shop just in that neighbourhood, having 
seldom occasion to go to that part of the city. 

I wrote to the gentleman, informing him of Emma's 
remarks ; and, on the receipt of my letter, he went to 
Mr. Turner's, purchased a case of medicines, and 
came over to Bolton to ascertain the particulars. 
When Emma was mesmerised, the sealed box was put 
into her hands. After holding it over her head, she 
said the case contained the medicine she saw, and 
pointed especially to the situation of one bottle in the 
case. When the box was opened, she selected a bottle 
labeUed ipecacuanha, which lay just under the place 
she had pointed out, and tasted the globules through '. 
the glass, without attempting to draw the cork. By 
way of test, the bottle was put into another part of 
the box, and other bottles shpped unawares into her 
hand; but she inyariably detected the change, by 
tasting through the glass, and putting the bottle to her 
forehead. She became angry at these changes, and 
said we should poison the lady, with some of the bot" 
ties we had picked out. I fetched a little powdered 
ipecacuanha, and gave it to her ; and asked, if that 
was like what was in the bottle she had selected. 
She said, there was some of that in, and two other 
things, and something sweet. This evinced a remark- 
able perception of the composition of the globules, 
which, I believe, are formed of sugar of milk, starch, , 
and a tincture of the drug, diluted with spirits of wine. 
From that time the prescribeSTglobules were duly ad- 
ministered, and the mesmeric passes regularly made 



156 tOUNOLISlC AN1> F8TCHEIfttf« 

by the lady's father : and the result was^ the restora- 
tion of the lady to health, both in mind and body. 
Two years have now nearly elapsed since the cure was 
effected^ and the lady remains perfectly well. How 
far the core is to be attributed singly to homoeopathy 
or mesmerism, or to both conjoined, I do not pretend 
to say. That the mesmeric passes are of the greatest 
nse in cerebral affections, especially when the mind is 
affected, I feel confident. Emma accompanied me 
once to see this lady, soon after the cure was under- 
taken. I put her into ''the sleep,'' and then set her 
to make passes over the lady, which she did with a 
soothing effect. • Thinking that I could assist in the 
operation, and that, as Emma had been mesmerised 
by me, the influence would be the same, I made a few 
passes over the occipital region and down the spine y 
but not so fully down as I wished, on account of the 
position in which she was sitting. Presently the lady 
began to evince great signs of anxiety and excitement. 
I saw something was wrong, but. did not know what. 
Emma, however, perceived both the excitement and 
the cause. " Don't you see," she exclaimed, "you are 
making the lady worse. Ton are putting the fluid on 
her head again." She meant, as she explained it, 
that I did not shake my hands after passing down the 
back, and that thus the hand charged with the fluid, 
returned it to the patient when a fresh pass was made. 
I then left it to Emma, who soon soothed the lady 
with her passes, and spoke of the effects which were 
visible to her, as she proceeded. Ever since then, I 
have been extremelv cautious not to mix influences, 
and to shake from the hand whateyer may have been 
drawn from the patient. 

The above remarkable case — remarkable, especially, 
for the choice of a remedy foreign to my practice, and 
for the precision with which she pointed out the shop 
where the remedy was to be obtained, still remains 
Ij without a parallel in my experience. What should 
have directed her attention to the homoeopathic medi- 
cines. I know not : when I have asked Emma what 



CLAIRVOYANCE IN MEDICINE. 157 

led her to see them^ she has replied, "That she was 
helped, and shewn what would cure the lady/' It 
ought also to be stated, that she always affirms that 
there is an influence over her, when examining serious 
cases of disease, quite different to what she experi- 
ences in inquiries after losses, or mere experiments. 
It induced me to investigate the nature and composi- 
tion of the homoeopathic medicines, and that mode of 
treating disease. That investigation has led me to 
conclude, that there is much that is good in the ho- 
moeopathic system of medicine; but it has not con- 
vinced me of the propriety of confining practice to in- 
finitessimal doses. I also think, that the virtues of 
all medicines depend on their physiological action; 
and that, hence, for the action of the best, and most 
tried homoeopathic remedies, a scientific reason may 
be assigned, in agreement with the acknowledged 
principles of therapeutics, and better than the mere 
empirical idea of specifics. I must own, that I have 
seen the best effects follow the use of homoeopathic 
remedies \ but I have always used my own judgment, 
as to the dose and manner of exhibition. Emma has 
repeatedly identified the homoeopathic globules with 
the tinctures from which they are prepared, and this 
merely by her method of tasting through the bottle. 
This certainly proves that something of the medicinal 
virtue remains in them, although so highly diluted, 
and so minute, as not to be ascertained by the most 
delicate chemical test. It is, perhaps, one 6f the best 
examples of the highly exalted sense attendant on 
clairvoyance. Many persons, admirers of homoeo- 
pathy, sought the assistance of Emma's powers, and she 
sometimes exhibited a sort of intuitive knowledge of 
the property of these remedies; at other times, her per- 
ceptions were more limited. 

The success attending her perception of homoeopa- 
thic remedies, induced me to try her with the usual 
medicines. A small quantity of the most useful drugs 
and chemicals were mixed with sugar, to give them the 
same sweet base as the homoeopathic preparations. 



158 80MN0LIBM AND F8YCHEISM. 

• 

and put into small bottles^ corked and capped. These 
she would examine the same way, by tasting through 
the bottle ; and such as she considered good for the 
patient^ en rapport with her, she called "fdce ;'' such 
as were not suitable, ** nasty ;'* though, sometimes, 
the " nice^' medicines were intensely bitter : such^ for 
instance, as the sulphate of quinine. Her manner 
was, after examining the patient, to taste the medi- 
cines, and to select such as bore some relation to the 
complaint ; and were, therefore, good for the patient 
then before her ; but she had no idea of appropriating 
certain medicines for certain recognized diseases. It 
was, therefore, no use to shew her an assortment of 
medicines, and ask her to point out what complaints 
they were good for : she always said, " Shew me the 
poorly person, and then I can see if any of them will 
do them good/^ Of the quantity of the medicine she 
se^ms to have no just perception, but simply of the 
quality ; hence, in her choice of homoeopathic reme- 
dies, I consider it was rather the inherent quality^ than 
the proper dose, which she perceived. But, by subse- 
quent conversations with ladies who were in the habit 
of using homoeopathic medicines, she acquired a know- 
ledge of the mode of administration, and carried her 
wakeful idea into the mesmeric state. The recognised 
medicines of the pharmacopoeia, which she most fre- 
quently selected, were generally appropriate, and such 
as I was in the habit of commonly using; and hence, 
it may be, that my knowledge, or practice, influenced 
her choice. 

Since the case above related, I have had many, both 
in the neighbourhood, and in distant parts of the 
country; but, from motives of delicacy to the patients, 
I suppress all reference to the parties. Besides, I 
have been especially desirous to avoid even the appear- 
ance of giving this work the character of an interested 
record of cures and cases; and, in medical matters, 
have aimed, at what an American reviewer of the First 
Edition calls ^^ a commendable brevily ;'^ therefore, I 
give the briefest summary of two years experience. 



CLAIRVOYANCE IN MEDICINS. 159 

The most numerous successftil cases bare been^ dis- 
eases of tbe cbest, liver, or nervous system. I bave bad 
the satisfaction of seeing parties restored, wbo were 
considered as past bope. Some of tbese parties I bave 
never personaUy seen, but prescribed for tbem accord- 
ing to tbe clairvoyante^s diagnosis: otbers, in tbe neigb- 
bourhood, I bave seen repeatedly, after tbe first or se- 
cond clairvoyant inquiry. In one case, in tbe Nortb of 
England, at a great distance from Bolton, I bad tbe 
satisfaction of receiving a corroboration of tbe clair- 
voyante^s statements, from tbe pbysician in attendance. 
I have also bad tbe gratification to receive letters of 
thanks, from individuals wbolly unknown to me per- 
sonally, wbo bave been cured, and wbom I bave not yet 
seen. Professional gentlemen of tbe bigbest standing, 
have also applied to me for a clairvoyant diagnosis of 
their own cases. As migbt be expected, tbe cases often 
were of tbe worst description, ixi wbich various modes 
of cure had been unsuccessfully tried, and proved 
sometimes incurable. One great advantage of mes- 
meric treatment, and element of success, — tbat of im- 
parting confidence and bope to tbe patient, — will be 
obvious to every practitioner. I will merely add a 
abort account of a case of blindness from amaurosis, 
wbicb occurred close to my tben residence, and wbich 
the parents of tbe patient are desirous should be 
known. 

Towards tbe close of tbe summer of 1849, Ellen 
Daniels, about seven years old, and daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Daniels, of No. 9, Cheapside, Bolton, while 
visiting at a relative's in Bury, began to exhibit symp- 
toms of cerebral afiection, with partial paralysis. The 
relative became so alarmed, that she brought the child 
home ; here tbe symptoms increased ; her eyes grew 
gradually dim, and eventually she became totally 
blind. The child had been in this state about a fort- 
night or three weeks, when I first beard of it. I sent 
for her, and examined her eyes minutely, and could 
discover no sensibility to light, and satisfied myself 
tbat she was really blind. I tben put Emma into tbe 



160 80MNOU8M AND P8TCBEI8K. 

lucid 8tate^ and desired her to examine the child's 
head thoroughly. She did so; and attributed the 
cause of blindness to the state of the roots of the optic 
nerves, and the general disordered condition of the ner- 
▼ous system. She said, if passes were daily made over 
the chdd's head in the manner she proposed, and a mild 
tonic chalybeate mixture, I was in the habit of using, 
administered, the child would recover its sight in a 
few weeks. Being desirous to ascertain whether she 
was correct in her perception, at the same time to 
benefit the child, if possible, I sent, in the evening, for 
its father, and said, that if he would allow me to try 
my way of curing the child, and not suffer any one 
else to interfere, I would do so, and not charge him 
anything for it. He consented; and the child was 
mesmerised daily; sometimes by Emma, and some- 
times by myself; at the same time, the medicine was 
used. At the end of about three weeks, the child 
manifested the first perception of light, which gradu- 
ally increased, until the sight became sufficiently re- 
stored to enable her to join in the gambols of other 
children, and also to read large print; so that a stran- 
ger could hardly perceive any defect. Her recovery 
would have been, I believe, more rapid, and still more 
perfect, if a sufficient time could have been spent on 
her; but the many interruptions I experienced 
prevented it. When I first examined the child, 
the outline of her cranium was very peculiar, being 
considerably elevated at the back of the top part; 
but, as her health and strength improved, I ob- 
served a gradual return to the ordinary form. Now, 
at the close of 1850, the child retains her sight, 
but is somewhat near-sighted. WhUe examining this 
child, Emma told me of several cases, where, she 
said, continued mesmeric passes would restore vision. 
But I have had no opportunity of trying any similar 
case. Edward Barnes, the epileptic patient, who was 
so susceptible of my mesmeric influence, and who at- 
tributes his cure entirely to the mesmeric passes, con- 



CLAIRVOYANCE IN MEDICINE. 161 

joined mrith the tonics I gave him^ remained free from 
the fits, when last seen during the past autumn. 

In putting the case of a distant patient, I give 
Emma the handtoriting, or a lock of hair, of the pa- 
tient, as the material medium of connection. In some 
instances, where I have known nothing of the symp- 
toms, slie has given me a very exact and full descrip- 
tion of the case ; in others^ she has omitted things 
which ought to be known. This may have happened 
from her attention not being directed to the part, or 
from her not perceiving the importance of the appear- 
ances. As regards external appearances, she seldom 
paid any attention to them, unless especially directed 
to do so. Considering that medical investigations are 
too important to be made matters of mere experiment, 
I have, for some time, refused to put any distant case, 
unless the symptoms were communicated to me confix 
dentially. By this means, I can be assured that Emma 
has the right party mentally before her, and can di- 
rect her especial attention to such parts, or organs, as 
the symptoms may lead me to suspect are disordered. 
When patients apply personally for clairvoyant diag- 
nosis, I generally desire them not to inform me of 
their complaints, until the clairvoyante has made an 
examination, and described the internal appearances 
and symptoms ; and, not unfrequently, they have ex- 
pressed their surprise at hearing their symptoms so 
accurately described, and the locality of pains correctly 
pointed out, or the time of the day at which periodical 
pains set in^ stated, without a word being said to either 
myself or Emma on the subject. It is this, which has 
made an indelible impression of the reality of clair- 
voyance on many persons. I invariably recommend 
patients to apply personally, if practicable. Their 
personal presence awakens the interest and sympathies 
of the clairvoyante, and that is of no little importance 
in these investigations. Besides, it is the faculty of 
lucidity which is then called into exercise; and this is 
not Uable to the mistakes of distant clairvoyant per- 
ception, nor is it so fatiguing to the clairvoyante. 



162 tOMNOLISM AND F8TCHEI8M. 

Distant ekurvayance appears more surprising and won- 
derful; but lucidity is tlie most certain and useful 
faculty. 

The non-professional reader would feel but little 
interest in the physiological researches^ to which I 
have applied Emma's faculty of lucidity ; I^ therefore^ 
reserve many details which I may publish in another 
work. I would only observe^ that these revealments 
throw light on various obscure diseases, especially of 
the heart and nervous system. It would appear, that 
there is a circulation^ or transudation, of the blood 
through minute orifices in the walls of the heart, 
which have been generally overlooked, on account of 
their minuteness, and the complexity of the arrange- 
ment of the fibres of the heart. A late physiological 
writer, has applied the safety-valve principle in illus- 
tration of the use of the valves of the right ventricle ; 
but here appears a more universal safety-system, by 
which the balance of the circulation, in this important 
organ, may be preserved, and, at the same time, the 
heart rendered less absolutely dependant for nutrition 
on the coronary arteries, than generally supposed. 
The knowledge of this parietal circulation, and of the 
action of the organic nerves, explains the reason of 
.sudden death, from spasm of the heart ; at the same 
time, it suggests a rational and safe mode of treating 
heart-disease. Then^ again, the clairvoyant descrip- 
tion of the forms and uses of the cortical spherules, or 
grey vesicular matter of the brain, and of the permea- 
bility of the medullary fibrous substances, and their 
different conditions in healthy and diseased persons, 
and of the use of the arachnoid membrane, throws 
much light on the causes of insanity. Emma has, 
on two or three occasions, pointed out on her own 
head, the locality of disease in insane persons not 
then present ; and I have ventured, from these state- 
ments, to say, on phrenological grounds, what the 
chief symptoms of mental alienation should be, and 
the friends have confirmed my description. 

It will be obvious to the reader, that the uses of 



CLAIRVOYANCE IN MEDICINE. 163 

dairvoyant revealment, do not end with the case in 
which it is made. The knowledge thus obtained may 
be usefdl to the physician in all similar cases. I must 
own, tliat I have derived information from this source, 
which I could not have obtained from the usual me- 
thods of study ; and, at the same time, more confi- 
dence in certain remedial applications. Clairvoyance 
and mesmerism are not to supersede the physician 
and medicinal agents; but the /orwier is to be used by 
the physician as he uses his stethescope, — that is, as 
an instrument of investigation ; in fact, a true lucid 
clairvoyante may be styled a living stethescope; and the 
latter is only one among many remedial agents. Mes- 
merism, I consider, has suffered from the enthusiasm 
of some of its admirers ; who put it forward as the 
universal and unfailing panacea, to the exclusion of all 
other healing measures J a practice too common with 
the enthusiastic votaries of all ^apathies and 'isms. 
Bnt the time occupied by clairvoyant investigation is 
a considerable hindrance to its use. The process is 
necessarily slow. Seldom has an examination lasted 
less than an hour; sometimes it has extended over 
two hours. This is a longer time than a physician 
can generally afford for a single case ; and then the 
clairvoyante is too much fatigued to investigate an- 
other. Patients, too, have mostly required long notes 
of their cases. Clairvoyance has also been sometimes 
used to gratify patients, when really not required. I 
should not feel confident in prescribing for absent pa- 
tients, on reading a list of their symptoms only, unless 
I found the clairvoyante's statements, on examination, 
accounted for those symptoms; and when patients apply 
personally, in very obscure cases, a clairvoyant investi- 
gation may be necessary. But, in the majority of 
cases, the usual method of inquiry, combined toith the 
information obtained from many clairvoyant iwvestiga^ 
tions, would be quite sufficient, if the patient fiilly 
stated the symptoms, and underwent the usual exa- 
minations. By this mode of procedure, the benefits 
derived from clairvoyant revealments would be more 



164 SOMNOLISM AND FSYCHEISM. 

generally diffused; much time saved; and^ conse- 
quently^ tlie charge to the patient lessened. Emma 
has W) recoUectian of anything she may have seen^ or 
' stated^ while making these inquiries^ just as happens 
in other mesmeric experiments; consequently^ many 
cases may be put^ or questions asked^ to which there 
might be some objection^ if she retained a knowledge 
of what had transpired^ when she returned to the 
wakeful condition. 

In concluding this section, it may be proper to 
^ state, that the remedies I now chiefly employ, consist 

of the active principles of vegetable substances, chemi- 

^ '\-* cally prepared, and impregnated with the odylic and 

vital magnetic influences, and especially as regards 

^ ' the solutions. Some are of the homoeopatliic class, 

and those which are contained in the recognised 
Pharmacopoeia, are, from their mode of preparation, 
free from all nauseous taste; while, owing to their 
concentrated form, they are transmissible by post, 
which is a great convenience to distant patients. In 
addition, simple and medicated baths, and atmospheric 
' and galvanic electricity, are &eely used, in all suitable 
cases. 



\ 



CHAPTER VIII. 

CLAIRVOYANT EXPfiRIMKNTS IN ELECTRu-CHIlMlSTaY AND 

MAONBTISM. 

In prosecuting my enquiries into mesmerism and 
clairvoyance, I soon perceived that there were some 
striking analogies to the phenomenon of terrestrial 
magnetism and electricity; such, for instance, as some- 
thing like polarity, attraction, and repulsion. Subse- 
quently I experimented a little in chemistry. About 
this period, a reverend gentleman kindly sent me Dr. 
Mayho's work ^' On the Truths contained in popular 
Superstitions,'' in which I saw some account of the 
earlier experiments of Baron Von Reichenbach, and 
of his newO D force. I was struckwith the similarityin 
the results of some of his experiments and my own. 
For the information of those unacquainted with the 
Baron's researches, I may briefly state, that he has 
several female patients, who appear to be the subjects 
of severe nervous disease, in one instance, confining 
the patient permanently to her bed. The unusual 
condition of the nervous system of these patients, 
partly perhaps constitutional, and partly the effects of 
disease, render them peculiarly susceptible of sensa- 
tional impressions ; and from their extreme sensitive- 
ness they are enabled to see phenomena, chiefly in 
connection with magnetic, electric, or chemical action, 
which are not at all perceptible to the senses of ordi- 
nary observers. B.eichenbach, alluding to the influ- 
ence felt by some persons from the proximity of a 
magnet, says, that in Germany, at least one-fourth of 
the inhabitants are susceptible of its influence in a 
greater or lesser degree: this class he calls sensitives; 
but such persons as his patients, sensitives in the highest 
degree. In these investigations, Beichenbach, like the 
mesmeric operator, has had to depend principally on 
the statements and feelings of others, and not on the 



166 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHEISM. 

evidence of his own senses^ or on the senses of per- 
sons constituted like himself. Hence a shadow of 
doabt cannot but arise^ which can only be dissipated 
by continued experiments^ and the most rigid tests. 
As regards mesmeric subjects^ I have always been 
fearful^ lest the opinions or conjectures of the ope- 
rator's mind should be unconsciously reflected by the 
subject; but in the following experiments, most of 
the statements refer to matters of which I had no 
previous idea. In the spring of the present year 
(1850), being in Edinburgh, I shewed to Professor 
Oregory some notes I had with me on these subjects ; 
and he very kindly read to me, some pass^es from 
his then unpubUshed translation of Reichenbach's 
larger work, which were so strikingly similar, that I 
saw they were two entirely independent testimonies 
to the same class of phenomena. The notes I tran- 
scribe, will I trust, prove interesting and suggestive 
to the enquiring reader, and I beUeve they are the 
first published English experiments of their kind. 

February 10, 1850. — In experimenting with Emma 
this day, she said, while in the lucid state, there is a 
fluid issuing from the points of the fingers of each 
hand. This fluid, she said she could see, and that it 
was of an orange or reddish colour from the right 
hand, and greenish or bluish from the left hand. She 
represented this fluid as passing out of the right hand 
inio the left, and thus making a circle. By trying 
these experiments her hands became so strongly at- 
tracted to each other, that it was only by long-con* 
tinned cross passes that they could be separated. The 
adhesion was so great, as to cause the fingers and 
hands to be distorted in a way not to be voluntarily 
imitated, and the muscles were swollen and rigid, 
with all the appearance of severe spasm. On the 19th 
of February, and several subsequent times, I tried her 
again on this point, to see whether her perceptions 
remained the same, but found no essential difference 
in her statements. 

February 21st. — ^Emma, in the ''sleep/' told me 



CLAIBYOTANCE IN MAGNETISM^ ETC. 167 

this day^ for the first time^ that if silyek was placed 
on the Bkin^ over the hearty "it would have her'' — her 
phrase for being demesmerised. Also^ that if a plate 
of sLLver was placed there^ while she was in the wake- 
fdl state^ she could not be put into the mesmeric sleep. 
How she came to know this^ I could not learn; it 
seemed like intuitive perception. I gave her^ at her 
request^ a shilling to try this effect. She placed it over 
her hearty and became gradually demesmerised; but 
on awaking^ did not seem quite right. She was some- 
what convulsive^ for^ perhaps^ a minute; and tl^s mode 
of demesmerising her did not awake her so easily and 
tranquilly as upward passes. At another sitting she said^ 
That if silver was placed in her hands^ it would help her 
back when away on distarU excursions. That is^ it 
would help her to re-invert the currents^ &c.^ and re- 
turn to the first, or ludd, state. On another occasion 
she said^ tluit a piece of silver^ as a shilling or half-a- 
crown, passed over from right to left, would prevent 
going into the " sleep/^ and act as a safegtiard. That 
a piece passed from left to right would bring her back, 
from a distance; and if put next the heart, would bring 
her out altogether. These statements I have found 
of great practical value. By putting a shilling into 
Emma's right hand, passed as she directed, or simply 
breathed upon, and, at the same time, making passes 
round her head and shoulders, from her left to the 
right side, she can easily be restored to the first state^ 
and the former excitement and palpitationss of the 
heart are thus avoided. At times, also, when Emma has 
gone spontaneously into a mesmeric state from abstrac- 
tion, or deep attention, as has happened when in a"^ 



fclace of worship, I have, unobserved, slipped ashilling^ 
' so passed, into her hands, and restored her silently to 
wakeful consciousness — greatly to her own surprise ; 
for she was unconscious of the change which had 
passed over her, until aroused from it. I did not try 
the effect of placing silver over the heart, to prevent 
the " sleep,'' for a considerable time ; being fearful, 
on account of her peculiar sensitiveness, that I might 



168 80MNOLI8M AND PSTCHEI8M. 

injure her^ or impair her interesting mesmeric suscep- 
tibilities; but this experiment has now been made 
seyeral times. The first time I made the trials Emma 
placed a half-a-crown^ I gave her for the purpose^ on 
the sternum^ rather than over the heart; and, I believe, 
her linen partially kept it from touching the skin. I took 
her hj the hands in the usual way, and looked stead- 
fastly at her, and she went speedily into the '^ sleep/' 
I thought that she had made a mistake ; and, indeed, 
from my powerful influence over her, I thought it im- 
possible that, by any means, she could be made to re- 
sist it. When I found where she had placed the coin, 
which I did on demesmerising her, I desired her to 
put it on the skin, close under the left breast ; at the 
same time, leading her to expect that it was to send 
her quicker into the sleep, (for I had not informed her 
in the wakeful state of what she had said respecting 
it ;) she did so; and I tried for ten or twelve minutes, 
but could not succeed in mesmerising her I Several 
times she seemed as if about to nod, and spoke of 
feeling sleepy, but the feeling directly passed off. 
Fearful of impairing her powers, I did not try longer, 
at that time, but tried again on another day, and with 
the same result. As Emma was in the wakeful con- 
scious state during these latter experiments, her sen- 
sations, on these occasions, belong to the class of 
TSLeichenhdich's sensitives, and as such will be described. 
Twice, after using the half-a-crown on the left side, 
and finding that I could not send her into the '^sleep,'' 
I got her to remove it to the corresponding situation 
on her right side, and desired her to describe the sen- 
sations she felt ; but not many seconds elapsed, after 
taking her hands, and looking at her, before she was 
in the mesmeric state. 

Many experiments were tried with a small bar, and 
horse-shoe magnet, which were often repeated and 
varied, with a view to test the accuracy of her state- 
ments. The general result may be thus stated: 
Emma could see an aura, or fluid, passing into, along, 
and out of the magnet. Nothing was said to her re- 



CLAIEYOTANCS IN MAONETISM^ ETC. 169 

specting the poles of magnets^ or tneir relation to ter- 
restrial magnetism^ lest any idea should be suggested 
to her^ which might give a bias to her perceptions ; 
but 8he invariably represented the fluid as passing in 
at the south pole of the magnet^ and out at the north 
pole. This she did^ whether the bar or horseshoe 
magnet was used. She describes the colours as 
'' rainbow-like ;'' duller^ with greenish and bluish 
oolouTs predominating at the south end; and more 
brilliant colours^ with red predominating^ at the north 
end. In comparing the current with that in her 
hands^ she said^ That the current out of the north pole 
of the magnet^ and out of her right hand^ was warmest^ 
and that was the reason she called her right hand^ 
" the warm hand /' and the right side of the body, 
generally, '* the warm side.'* In describing the cur- 
rent through the bar magnet^ she represented it as 
passing along the upper surfaces of the magnet, and 
returning underneath; but whether she meant under- 
neath the magnet, or under the upper surface, I could 
not tell. She described the magnet as full of " little 
holes/' — spores, probably ; and said, that the fluid had 
a more zig-zag course in the magnet than in the air, 
because it was stopped by these little holes : — ^perhaps 
some irregularity in their pores. 

A bar magnet was laid on a table, nearly north and 
south ; with the north pole of the magnet to the north 
pole of the earth. Emma desired to look at the mag- 
netic fluid in the air, and see whether it went in the 
direction the magnet was lying. After a minute or 
two's examination, she placed the magnet in a position 
nearly N.N.W., and S.S.E.; that is, nearly, if not quite, 
in the Une of variation, the northern current having a 
western declination. In this position, she said, the 
fluid in the air, and that in the magnet, travelled in 
the same direction. In describing the course of the 
fluid in the bar magnet, she invariably represented it as 
passing from the south-east comer to the north-west. 
When the magnet was reversed with its south pole 
placed northerly, she said the current was contrary to 

8 



170 SOMNOLISM AND P8TCHSI8M. 

the current in the air. The magnet was then laid in 
a position from east to west, widi the north pole to 
the east: she now said, the current entered at the 
south-west angle, and passed out at the north-east; in 
this mode, crossing the terrestrial current. But the 
most curious thing, perhaps, is, she represents the 
fluid as describing a series of epicycbndal curves in its 
course. These curves she pointed out, with a pencil, 
on the magnet, and afterwards roughly drew them .on 
paper. 

August 14th. — ^A small iron wire was passed through 
the keyhole of the door, and into the yard, in the sun- 
light ; but the sun was rather obscured : the other end 
was put into Emma's hand, or else held before her. 
When asked, if she could see anything? she replied, 
''That she could see sparks of fire coming from the 
wire — ^nothing eke. It is of the same sort of colour 
as flies from the points of the electric machine; — ^they 
jump.'^ She then described them as like a mass of 
twisting fire (spirals, probably,) round the outside of 
the wire, and at the point they seemed to fly off. She 
had a silver ring on her finger; I put the wire through 
the ring, between it and her finger. She said, the 
ring seemed to stop the sparks coming any farther ; 
they twisted round the ring, and then flew off at its 
edges. When the sparks passed from the edges of 
the ring, they were of a similar colour as when they 
passed from the point of the wire, but brighter. A 
ffold ring was now tried. ''They now seem two 
colours. The sparks part into two colours as they fly 
off. They are a brilliant red, and a pea green. They 
seem to go the same way, but some are red and some 
are green. When the sun does not shine out, they 
are not so bright.^' A gold and garnet ring tried, 
and the wire put through. — " The sparks fly from the 
edges of the ring, green and red. The stones stop 
the rays.'' A gold ring was held out in the sunshine, 
and then given her. She said, it felt cool ; but the 
vapour, from the end of the wire, hot. It should be 
observed, that Emma shews no real signs of feeling 



CLAIRVOTANCE IN MAGNETISM^ ETC. 171 

ivhen mesmerised ; but may easily be led to imoffine 
that she feels pain^ by pretending to prick her^ or ex- 
citing the idea of pain; whether in these experiments^ 
she really felt, as well as saw, by some abnormal means^ 
or only had the perception of what the sensation would 
be^ I cannot determine. 

On another occasion^ I passed both a brass and 
iron wire under the window^ and fastened them^ by 
small staples^ so as to be exposed to the bright sun- 
shine of a summer^s afternoon ; the other ends were 
^ven to Emma^ in a shaded part of the room. Al- 
most the first observation she made was^ that the yel- 
low wire was mixed ; this struck me forcibly^ as I am 
sure she knows nothing of the composition of brass. 
She said^ the light from both wires was the same 
colour^ but that the yellow wire had the strongest 
spark. The sparks came spiral along the wire^ and 
then flew off at the end ; a Ibiot^ or circle^ in the wire 
does not stop the current. She said^ unasked^ that 
the yellow wire would do a patient good. Afterwards, 
that if a person had a pain in the face, the current 
£rom the wire would tend to cure it, in the same way 
aa the mesmeric influence, but that it would not send 
into the '^ sleep.'' She also said, that if the wire was 
placed on her skin, round her waist, I could not '^send 
her," — that is, send her into the '' sleep." This I have 
not tried ; but I found that she did not go into the 
sleep untU she loosed the wire, which I did not per- 
ceive she held in her hand, until I found a difficulty in 
mesmerising her. This appears to be similar to what 
she before said of silver. 

I noticed one very singular occurrence at this sitting. 
I put the end of the wire through the ring she wore, 
as in a former experiment ; Emma wished to examine 
it closely, by looking at it over her forehead, in her 
usual manner. In passing it upwards, she accidentally 
touched the upper part of her nose with the ring, and 
instantly exclaimed that a sh^ck, or prick, had been 
given her : this she rather saw than felt. She said, 
that, after she was demesmerised, inflammation would 



172 SOMNOLISM AND PtTCHSISM. 

arise tliere^ and that I slioiild see it. I saw none then; 
and, upon awaking ber^ I did not tell her what she 
had said. About two boors afterwards, while walking 
in the street, she felt so distinctly, as if something had 
struck her on the nose with a small stick, that she 
turned round involuntarily to see if any one was near 
her. When she mentioned this to me, I told her what 
she had said in the '' sleep/' In the evening, I saw 
plainly a small circular elevated patch of inflammation; 
this did not whollv subside for three days. When I 
had her again. in the mesmeric state, I asked her how 
it was that the wire and ring affected her nose ? She 
said, it was because '^ she was warm*^ — ^meaning, mes- 
merised. This may^shew that there is a real influence 
flowing firom wires so placed, which can be felt by sen- 
sitive persons ; and the readers of Beichenbach's last 
work, will observe a similarity, if not identity, with his 
odylie force. These experiments with the sunlight, I 
repeated several times, and with similar results. 

After one of the foregoing experiments, I tried an- 
other directly chemical. I placed my daughter on a 
closed staircase, and gave her a tumbler of water, con- 
taining about half an ounce of bicarbonate of soda : 
into this I introduced one end of a small iron wire, 
which I brought through the door, and the other end 
I held before Emma. While the soda was dissolving, 
Emma said she could see light coming from the end of 
the wire, like the light of burning sulphur ; it seemed 
to come through the wire. By preconcerted signals, 
my daughter put portions of tartaric acid into the 
solution. Every time the acid was added, Emma ex- 
claimed, that the light firom the wire was more brilliant, 
and if I touched her with the wire it gave her a shock. 
When I touched the gold and silver rings she then had 
on her fingers, especially when the acid* was added, 
it drew and contracted the muscle, and twisted the 
arm, like the effect of a powerful charge from a medical 
galvanic apparatus. This, to me, was a most interest- 
ing experiment ; the results were so striking and un- 
expected. It may be objected, that Emma's lucid 



CLAIUYOTANCS IN MAGNETISM^ ETC. 178 

faculty enabled her to see what was going on behind 
the door^ and that she fancied the additional action 
when she saw the effervescence ; but she sees only such 
things as her attention may be directed to^ and I en«> 
deavoured to fix that on myself and the wire I held. 

Some days afterwards I fixed a small brass wire so 
that one end was in another apartment^ and could con- 
veniently be dipped into solutions^ and gave directions 
for. their management, and for letting me know what 
was being done. The above recited experiment, 
slightly varied, was repeated. Bicarbonate of potass was 
now tried in solution; one end of the brass wire dipped 
into it; the other I shewed to Emma in the next 
apartment. She said a light came through the wire, 
not round it ; this she now compared to burning salt- 
petre. Tartaric acid was added at a signal, as before. 
She said the light was more brilliant, and that it shot 
forth every time the acid was added, and during the 
effervescence. It gave her a shock as before; and 
^vhen the wire touched her silver ring, it produced the 
galvanic effect on her hands and wrists: or what looked 
like rigid mesmeric catalepsy. 

A piece of iron wire was put into largely-diluted 
sulphuric acid, and the concealed end of the brass 
wire introduced; the other end shewn to Emma. 
She said, light comes out of the wire, more of a buff 
colour than in the other experiments. It comes through 
the wire, and out like little globules or sparks. It 
tasted sour : very sour and bitter, '^something like the 
iron water of Turttm!^ This was a most pointed com- 
parison. I put the end of the wire into her hand, and 
then, unobserved, slipped half-a-crown into the palm 
of the hand in contact with the wire. Instantly her 
hand and arm became distorted and bent, as with a 
powerful galvanic charge; and so strong was the effect 
on her, that she twisted the wire tightly round her. 
hand and wrist, as if it had been a piece of string ; and 
the tightness caused a deep indented discoloured ring^ 
where the wire pressed. I had some difficulty in re- 
moving the half-crown and setting her hand at liberty. 



174 80MNOLI8H AND P8TCHBI8M. 

and feared I had mucb hurt it. Here, and in similar 
cases, the effect was undeniable^ and obvious enough 
to the senses of all observers. I afterwards directed 
her attention to the glass in the other apartment. 
She said that " there was something at the bottom of 
the glass that looked round, but she could not distin- 
guish what it was; that there were babbles in the 
glass:" which was correct, as they arose from the 
gradual decomposition of the water, and the escape of 
the hydrogen, and ''that it tasted sour.'' She was 
not very lucid that day, and complained of headache. 
These experiments shew, that there is some real 
unknown influence excited by chemical action, light, 
heat, and the magnet, which can be perceived by 
highly sensitive persons, and more distinctly, probably, 
in a high state of cerebral lucidity, or clairvoyance ; 
and the reader will be prepared to admit the possibility 
of mesmerising water, wluch has generally been con- 
sidered as merely imaginary. Frequently I have just 
dipped the tips of my right fingers into a tumbler 
of water, and almost as soon as Emma has taken a 
portion into her mouth it has evinced its powerful 
effect on her, by momentarily arresting her breathing, 
causing a convulsive gurgling in her throat, and then 
a complete lapse into the mesmeric state. This has 
occurred when I have touched the water unknown to 
her. She generally manifested this great sensibility 
just after awaking from the mesmeric sleep. The in- 
convenience and convulsive action was the effect of the 
suddenness. How long the water would have retained 
the influence I cannot say, having always thrown it 
away to prevent accidents. But it would seem that 
the mesmeric influence may be transferred to most, if 
not all, bodies. One morning, a letter arrived from 
her parents, with the love and kisses common in such 
epistles. After reading it to her, I jokingly breathed 
over the words, and made some passes over it as I 
folded it up and gave it her, saying, " Take your let- 
ter ; it is full of love now,'' or some such expression ; 
she took it, and instantly fell on the floor, as if in a 



.SENSITIVE EXPERIMENTS. 175 

fit ! I felt alarmed, and hastened to raise her up ; 
and as soon as she recovered herself, she said it was 
occasioned by the letter, which was so charged that 
the suddeness with which she took it instantly took 
away her senses. Fortunately she was not hurt. 
She desired me to bum the letter; but this T did not 
do, nor did I think of demesmerising it ; but put it 
"with others in a letter-rack. I afterwards found her^ 
either on the after part of that day, or the next, again 
lying on the floor, with the letter in her hand, and in 
the mesmeric state. Upon inquiry, I found she had 
been sitting, sewing, near the rack, and felt an influ- 
ence drawing her head towards it. The strange feel- 
ing induced her to look, and seeing the letter, she got 
i^p to take it down and throw it in the fire ; but no 
sooner had she taken it in her hands, then she fell as 
before, and remained in the mesmeric state till I found 
her. I had no intention recUly to mesmerise the letter 
when I gave it her, much less that it should affect 
her as it did ; but the mere passes and breathing con- 
veyed the influence which remained in contact, or in- 
herent, in the paper. This influence, therefore, like 
that resulting £rom chemical, or odylic action, is a real 
something, which can be retained and transferred. As 
the plague may be disseminated by papers or garments 
imperceptibly contaminated; so may the soothing and 
health-giving influence of mesmerism, and its kindred 
elements, be conveyed to medicinal substances, and 
the effect experienced will be according to the recep- 
tivity of the subject. 

Sensitive experiments. — The endeavour to mes- 
merise Emma, with a plate of silver over the heart, 
shewed that she is in the wakeful state, what Ueichen- 
bach calls, a sensitive. But I apprehend all mesmeric 
subjects will be found more or less sensitive. I do 
not positively know, but have reason to suspect, on 
physiological grounds, that the ordinary sight of sensi-^ 
tvoes will be found weaker than that of robust persons. 
Hence, after all, the ability of sensitives to see objects 
invisible to ordinary vision, may result from the ac* 



176 SOMNOLMM AHD FSTCHBI8X. 

tivitj of the aensorium, as in lucid mesmeric subjects; 
and the peculiar state of the nervous system may 
render th*^ intemaUy sosceptible of impresaions 
which cannot be felt by indinduals normally consti- 
tuted. The most healthy will experience a sensation 
of light from k blow near the eye^ as well as from other 
strong stimulating applications; this is generally re- 
ferred to the stimulus conveyed to the retina, &c., 
and the light considered merely imaginary. But, 
from the results of Beichenbach's experiments, it is 
probable that the strong nervous stimulus excites the 
odyUc action, and renders the odyKc Ughi momentarily 
visible. 

When I found that I could not mesmerise Emma 
while the half-crown was over her heart, I directed my 
attention to any other symptoms that might arise^ 
and asked her if she felt any peculiar sensations. I 
first held her hands in the usuid way; that is, her left 
hand in my right, and right hand in my 1^. I found, 
that whenever I loosed, or changed my hands so as to 
take her left hand in my left, she started, and drew a 
sudden convulsive inspiration, similar to what would re- 
sult from a slight electric shock, or a sudden plunge of 
the body into water. This shock was experienced every 
time the hands were changed. When my right hand 
held her left hand, she felt as if something was going 
up her arm; this sensation was felt in the hand, at the 
elbow, the shoulder-joint, and then down to the place 
where the half-crown was placed ; there it was felt as 
a gentle blowing sensation around the coin. When I 
crossed my hands, and took her left in my left, after 
the first sUght shock, she felt a sucking or di^wing 
sensation over the heart ; then a feeling of swelling, 
or filling, in her breast; then a darting sensation to 
the shoulder, — the elbow, — ^the wrist, — ^and these sen- 
sations continued as long as the two left hands were 
connected. No particular sensation was felt when 
her right hand only was held. When both hands were 
held in the usual way, no particular sensation was felt 
over the heart, but a continued sensation in her hands 



CONSCIOUS LUCIDITY. 177 

like what is called '^ pins and needles/' This sensa- 
tion was considerably heightened^ if the thumbs were 
compressed as well as the fingers. I have several times 
tried Emma's sensitiveness to the magnet ; sometimes 
she has shewn considerable sensibility^ M others, but 
little. The general result is as follows : When a bar 
magnet was drawn down her right arm, she felt a sen- 
sation, at times, even through the sleeve of her dress, 
but stronger very near, but not touching the naked 
skin. If the north pole of the magnet was held next 
to her, she described the sensation as it passed down, as 
being that of an agreeable coolness, as it passed along 
the straight bones of the arm, hand, and fingers; but a 
vrarmer, or sort of hot sensation at every joint. If the 
north pole of the magnet was passed upwards^ it 
produced a somewhat disagreeable warm sensation. 
When the magnet was passed spirally round her arm, 
with the north pole towards her, she described it as a 
sensation of a wire or cord drawn tight round the arm, 
and cool as it passed downwards. 

Nov. 15th, 1850 — This day, after several failures, 
I succeeded, as about two years since, in arousing or 
awaking Emma to full wakeful consciousness, but 
with the lucid faculty in activity. After several of 
these trials, she awoke, but with the eyelids closed and 
quite dark, and wholly unable to see anything; in fact, 
like many persons are in the first stages of mesmerism. 
I tried the eflfect of breathing on the top of her head ; 
when, after a little time, she shrieked out with fear, 
and said that everything was light, although the eye- 
lids were still closed. Notwithstanding her familiarity 
with physiological inquiries while in the mesmeric 
state, she now felt so horrified at the sight of the cir- 
culating blood and moving viscera, that I was speedily 
obliged to close the vision. On the evening of that 
day, and the next, I tried her again, and got her to 
be a little less frightened. After fully awaking her, 
and bringing her, apparently, completely into the nor- 
mal state, suddenly, from some cause, she went into 
the lucid state tvith the eyes mde open, and continued 

g'Mc 



178 SOMNOLISM AND P8YCHSI8M. 

■o for a few minutes, and then sunk into the mesmeric 
state. This was a very different state to that of spon- 
taneous mesmerism with the eves open ; because, in 
this latter state, her eyes were ^wB,ys Jia^ed, or nearly 
so, and the whole tone of voice, language, and manner, 
evinced that she was in the mesmeric, or magnetic, 
state, notwithstanding the eyes remained unclosed. 
But in this state of wake^l lucidity her eyes freely 
moved, and all the senses appeared in the normsd 
condition. 

In this wakeful lucid state, she began spontaneously 
to speak of my skin ; the outer part of which she 
compared to fish scales, lying one over the other: and 
spoke of the edges of the scales as appearing irride- 
scent with all the colours of the rainbow. This, with 
many other observations, seems to shew, that not only 
is the lucid vision clearer and brighter than ordinary 
light, but that it magnifies the objects, and hence her 
ability to see the blood corpuscles and other minute 
parts of the body. The true skin she compared to 
many fibres of fine cotton lying in various directions, 
and interspersed with numerous blood-vessels. Al- 
though the eyes were open, and freely moved about 
as her attention was directed to different objects, it 
did not appear that they were the organs of this lucid 
vision; for she seemed to see clearer, and to hare 
more light, when she held her eyelids down with the 
fingers of hgr right hand, as, if in accordance with 
what she says of the vital electric, or magnetic, cur- 
rents, the circuit was completed when she pressed in 
this way on her eyelids. When the gas was turned 
down, so as to be nearly out, she said it was lighter; 
and when turned on again, said it had become darker: 
another proof, that the light, or its analogue, issued 
from within. 

I took the opportunity of this unexpected conscious 
lucid state, to try her again with the magnets ; and I 
felt more induced to do this, because I found that she 
had no recollection of what she had said or done in 
the mesmeric state. Indeed, it was amusing to see 



CONSCIOUS LUCIDITY. 179 

how clamsily she did things in this lucid state^ in ac- 
cordance with my direction, which, in the mesmeric 
state^ she did spontaneously, as if by instinct. I was 
gratified to find her corroborate all her mesmeric 
statements. She placed the magnet exactly in the 
same direction, to be in the line of the magnetic cur- 
rent ; drew the same curves, unasked, and again said 
that the fluid went in at the south end, and out at the 
north; but she spoke plainer of the course of the 
carrent. She said, that it formed an arch in going 
from point to point of the curves; that there were 
sparks of light issuing from the ends and points of 
these curves, of a phosphorescent appearance, — for 
she compared them to the light produced by rubbing 
a lacifer match in the dark. The current, after pass- 
ing from south to north, issued out at the north-west 
comer, formed an arch over to the north-east comer, 
and then returned through the middle of the magnet, 
crossing it in the centre to the south-west comer, 
then arching to the south-east corner, where it entered, 
and went on as before. She saw the luminous fluid 
issuing from my fingers, and, as before, said it came 
out of the right hand, and that the colour in that 
hand was brighter than the left. When the hands 
were joined a current was formed. It is proposed to 
enter into these magnetic and chemical experiments 
on another occasion, and in a scientific form. The 
scientific reader will, doubtless, see in these simple ex- 
periments, results suggestive of very interesting inquiry. 



CHAPTER IX. 



BXTAtn. Oft TftAKO*. 



Tbe ancients were acquainted with a state, in wMch 
the patient fell into a sort of swoon^ and, while under 
its influence, the mind became, as it were, loosened firom 
its bodily connection, and could, by this means, obtain 
a perception of objects, and a knowledge of things not 
cognizable to the ordinary senses. To this state they 
gave the name of Energumene^ from its inward work- 
ings; and Estcuis, because the mind thus stood, oom- 
paratively, out of the body. It was not confined to 
prophets or inspired teachers; although it is highly 
probable that such persons were almost invariably the 
occasional subjects of this state, and were thus niade 
the mediums of Divine Bevelations. The condition^ in 
itself, seems to be, a merely partial uncovering of 
the veil which conceals '^the things unseen;" and 
Extatics may be considered as travellers in an un- 
known country, enabled to see something of its na- 
ture, and to report, according to the degree of their 
perception, or powers of observation. But in no true 
sense, are they to be regarded as Divine Agents, un- 
less specially called to that office independently of 
their Extatic condition. The sacred historian calls 
the vision of St. Peter, mentioned in the Acts, chap. 
X., ver. 10, an Extasis*; but the call or office of the 
Apostle was antecedent and independent of the vision: 
the use of the term, however, shews that the state was 
known. It is not within the design of this work to 
enter critically, or theologically, into an investigation 
of this subject : I, therefore, merely suggest, that all 
states of Extasis y were, and are, but an uncovering of 
the perceptions of the Psyche, or natural part of 

* St. Paul says he weot into tbe state of ExtatiMt while praying in the 
Temple at Jerusalem. Acts zzii. 17. 



SXTASIS^ OR TBANCC. 181 

man's spiritual organization; and hence the earthly 
character^ as to scenery and the like^ of all such re- 
veaknents: the higher and prophetic revelations re* 
ceived by St. John^ are said to be the result of being 
'* enpneumaii/* — "in the spirit" 

The foregoing chapters refer to the phenomena 
witnessed in the state of induced extasis^ or mesmeric 
trance ; the present to states of much higher^ or more 
interior character^ and differing in some respects es- 
sentially from the observed facts of ordinary mes- 
merism^ whether induced by the wiU or passes of an 
operator^ or arising spontaneously, or from abstrac- 
tion, as mesmeric states may do. They are precisely 
such states as were understood by Ewtasis, and as 
such are here classed. One very striking difference 
is observable ; in the mesmeric trance, all is a blank 
to the subject when aroused ; but in the extatic state, 
not only is there, in some measure, a power to des- 
cribe what is seen or heard, or perceived as heard, 
but also, a recollection of what has transpired while 
in the extasis. 

Frequently during the spring and summer of 1848, 
Emma would, in the mesmeric state, speak of the 
scenery and nature of the spirit-world, in such a way 
as to impress the beholder with a conviction, that the 
descriptions she gave could not be the result of any 
previously acquired knowledge, or of an active imagi- 
nation. She also, occasionally, spoke of things which 
had actually occurred, but which it was impossible 
for her to know by any ordinary means. Her ideas 
of religion were principally derived from the teach- 
ings of a village schoolmistress in connection with the 
Church of England, and from occasional attendance 
at the public service of the church. She had been 
taught, she said, to read a little, while a child, but 
had lost the acquirement through a fever, and want 
of continued tuition ; and, as before observed, at this 
time she could not read, nor even correctly tell the 
letters of the alphabet; and yet the ideas to which 
she gave utterance, were frequently of an elegant 



182 80MNOLI8M AND PSTCHEI8M. 

ftnd exalted description^ although couched in homely 
language. As she still continued to have no recollec- 
tion of what she uttered, when she returned to the 
normal state, I one day said to her, with a view of 
observing what her reply would be, — '' Emma, I have 
heard of some persons having seen such things as you 
speak of, but they could recollect what they saw, and 
write an account of it in books/' She replied, " Yes ; 
because it was permitted them ; and she should also 
be permitted by and by to recollect what she saw.'* I 
was much surprised at her reply, but I did not tell 
her this when she awoke, nor did I expect, then, that 
her prediction would be verified. Subsequent events 
proved that she was correct in making this assertion. 
It has since occurred to me, that she was undergoing 
a change, preparatory to the development of the ex- 
tatic state, and that on this account her mind was 
drawn more to spiritual scenery. But the reader 
must not suppose that I imagined her to be invested 
with a religious character ; which indeed, would not 
be in harmony with her ordinary state of Ufe, as she 
never manifested what are called " religious impres- 
sions '/' or that I considered her in the light in which 
" the extaticas *' have been represented in some Ro- 
man Catholic countries. All these states I believe to 
be conformable to, and the result of, natural laws act- 
ing upon the peculiar nervous organization; but I 
consider that these natural laws are but the results of 
more interior and higher spiritual laws; and that 
these higher laws may, on this account, modify and 
control the lower. But while disclaiming all preten- 
sions to a religious character, I must say, that I con- 
sider her statements, whether true or false, as inde- 
pendent as any which have been made before, and, as 
far as I know, wholly uninfluenced, by any thing I 
have read, or any opinions I may have entertained. 
I have carefully avoided instructing her in many 
things, lest it should bias her mind, or give a colour 
to her statements; and some of her most striking 
revealments have been opposed to my preconceived 



EXTASIS^ OK T&ANCS. 188 

opinions ; while others^ relate to matters I liaye never 
considered. 

The first of these spontaneous states of extasis, or 
spiritual trance^ occurred on the 3rd of Jnly, 1848, 
without any expectation, or forewarning on her jMurt, 
at leasts as far as I know. This did not last more than 
a quarter of an hour. Afterwards she had aeyend 
i^vhich lasted about half an hour; and since then, some 
which have continued for four, six, ten, and even 
tw^elv^ hours. But few, if any, of these states were 
observed during 1849, and not many during the pre- 
sent year (1850), and those which have occurred, have 
been of a less interesting nature on the whole, than 
those which occurred in 1848. Of most of these 
states, she had a preaentiment while in the mesmeric 
state, and, in one instance, foretold the occurrence 
nearly two months before it happened. Generally, 
it was about a week or fortnight before the trance 
that she received an intimation of it, which she al- 
ways represented as being told her; and as the time 
approached she would know the exact hour it was to 
take place, and usually about three or four days be* 
forehand. She knew nothing of what was forthcom- 
ing, while in her ordinary wakeful state, and for the 
sake of experiment, and to test, the truthfulness of 
her predictions, she was never informed when these 
trances were to occur; and yet she was invariably 
found correct, even to the exact time I They have 
usually been preceded by a feeling of quietness, and 
a confiised strange sensation in the head, but not ex- 
actly of pain ; but as soon as she fairly passed into 
the extatic state, all this feeling of strangeness and 
discomfort left her. Frequently she has complained 
to- me of these feelings, and has enquired the cause, 
which I well knew, but could not consistently tell 
her. Several gentlemen whom I have apprized of 
her predictions, have been witnesses of their accuracy, 
and of the genuineness of this abnormal condition. 
Only one state that she had predicted, has failed to 
occur; and that depended on a contingency which 



184 80XNOI.I8M AND P8TCH£I81C. 

has not yet taken place. In regard to these predic- 
tions, it must be obserred that they relate entirely to 
her own states : of the future as relating to others, or 
to general events, she appears to have no perception, 
or but an imperfect one, except sometimes in the re- 
sults of cases of illness. 

In these states of spontaneous extasis she preserred 
a recollection, at times, of the place she was actually 
in, and of the persons by whom she was surrounded ; 
and, at the same time, she had a distinct BH^T^ensa- 
tional perception of a higher and spiritual state of ex- 
istence, and of a class of beings living in such a state. 
She would speak of these things whUe in the trance ; 
and on her return to the normal state, she could recol- 
lect, and, with a feeling of awe and diffidence, again 
describe what she had seen and heard. During the 
first trance of four hours' duration, which occarred on 
the 28th of September, 1848, and was witnessed by 
several highly respectable gentlemen from Manchester, 
she was so far elevated in her perceptions, that she 
spoke of this world as the other world, just as if she 
had passed from this life by death. She said, also, 
that the persons in the room with her, appeared only 
like shadows, and a long way from her. Upon exa- 
mination, she was found, in this and other trances, 
insensible to pain, and her eyes upturned, as in the 
ordinary mesmeric state, and her limbs continued 
flexible. At times, she would seem whoUy indrawn ; 
and then she would, as it were, return and speak of 
what was passing before her mental vision. But, in 
a subsequent trance, of six hours' duration, she be- 
came, for a part of it, quite insensible to all outward 
things, and perfectly cataleptic from head to foot. A 
gentleman, who was with me on this occasion, as- 
sisted me to raise her body, and we found it as stiff 
and inflexible as a log of wood. 

The subject of these trances would afford matter 
for many pages; but some were of a private character, 
and, although highly interesting to the parties con- 
cerned, would not be interesting to others, except as 



EXTASIS^ OR T&ANCE. 186 

illustirating the natttre of the spirit^s home^ and some 
of the general laws by which spiritual associations 
are regulated. It was with some hesitation I ventured 
to publish anything on this subject^ in the first edition 
of this work^ knowing that it was calculated to expose 
the writer to the sarcasms^ and, perhaps^ contempt of 
a certain class of readers ; but I knew that there were 
some persons who would feel an interest in such reveal-* 
ments^ and I find this latter class larger than I expected^ 
and not confined to any particular creed or denomi- 
nation. I^ therefore^ venture on a somewhat fuller 
statement^ but still very brief. All that I have ob- 
served in these trances^ tends to confirm the distinc- 
tion between moral good and moral evil^ and the im- 
possibility of those who depart this life in a state of 
moral evil^ attaining heres^er to a state of moral 
goodness. In this respect^ Emma's statements are 
strikingly dissimilar to those of Davis^ the cele- 
brated American clairvoyant. But, as Davis subse- 
quently stated^ he had not been the subject of extasis, 
or the " superior state/^ as he terms it, when he de<* 
livered the lectures, afterwards published under the 
title of '^ Nature^s Divine Revelations;'' conse- 
quently, as he was only in the induced state of ordi^ 
nary mesmerism, he may have, unconsciously, re- 
flected the minds and ideas of those in mental associ- 
ation with him. 

A general statement of Emma^s revealments while 
in the state of extasis, will enable the reader more 
folly to comprehend the particular details of indivi- 
dual trances. Man is represented as a spiritual 
being, rising from what she calls " the shell'' of the 
dead material body, immediately after death ; or as 
soon as the connection between the soul and its ma- 
terial covering is completely severed, which she says, 
does not sometimes occur, until a day or two after 
what appears as death. The risen and emancipated 
spirit, is a perfectly organised existence, preserving the 
human form, and having a complete sensational percep^ 
turn of his fellow spiritual beings, and of the beautifol 



186 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHEI8M. 

•oenery of tlie spiritoal spheres ; that is, provided he 
possessed during his natural life, a moral state in 
harmony with those spheres. The male and female 
sex retaining all the characteristics necessary to a 
spiritual state of existence, and living together in a 
state of angelic union, being united as to their minds. 
Those who have been interiorly united here, coining 
into a state of union hereafter; those who have not 
been menially united here, seek their true mental 
counterpart hereafter. She represents male and fe- 
male spiritual beings thus united, appearing at a dis- 
tance as one, and says they are not called two, nor 
the married, but the one. InfiEmts and young chil- 
dren who have passed from this world by death, are 
stated to grow to a state of adolescence, but more 
speedily than in the natural world. During in&ncy, 
and early childhood, they are confided to the care of 
good female spirits, or angels, whose delight it is, to 
instruct them by various methods;^ especially hyrepre- 
sentatUme of things, which form a sort of pictorial 
teaching. These spiritual spheres are not located in 
the distant regions of space, or in the sun, or heavenly 
bodies ; but are connected apparently with our own 
planet, and the spiritual inhabitants are in close asso- 
ciation with us, and exercise an influence over us, 
although we are imconscious of it. It would appear, 
that all that is required, in order for men to have a 
sensational knowledge of their existence,-^that is, to 
be able to see and hear them, is the closing of the ex- 
ternal consciousness, and a full awakening of the 
internal consciousness. In the highest state of ex- 
tasis, she appeared to herself to be among spiritual 
beings as one of themselves, at home, and surrounded 
by objects which to her were real, and which appeared 
more real, than the shadowy beings, with whom she 
was naturally associated. At other times, she said, 
that s?ie appeared to the spiritual beings as shadowy^ 
and her own perceptions were proportionably obscure. 
The first receptacle, or common plane of departed 
spirits, she describes as a sort of middle state or place^ 



EXTASIS^ OR TRANCE. 187 

from which the good^ as they become prepared^ ascend 
gradually^ to higher and more delightful places; those 
that are the best having higher abodes than the others. 
All, she says, are welcomed by angelic spirits on their 
arrival in the spirit-world ; but the evil will not asso^ 
date vnth the goody and recede of their own accord, 
more or less rapidly, to darker places below this mid- 
dle state, and which appeared also to be to the left : 
bnt of these darker places she had not seen so much, 
as of the abodes of the good. How far the objects 
presented before the extatic vision are in themselves 
vrhat they appear to be, or how far they are accommo- 
dated to the perceptions of the extatic, and, in accord- 
ance with the suggestion I have thrown out above, 
are thus presented in agreement vnth natural ideas, I 
do not presume to determine: the essence may be 
spiritual; the appearance natural. 

I have said, that before Emma became the subject 
of the extatic state, she had, in the ordinary mesmeric 
state, began to speak frequently of spiritual objects 
and beings. I soon perceived, that one being, under 
whose influence she seemed to be, and of whom she 
frequently spoke, had been most nearly related to me, 
while in this world, but she had departed this life for 
about ten years when the first of these trances oc- 
curred. Emma always says that this ^^ady,^' as I 
will call her, following Emma's phraseology, " helps 
her'' in all serious cases of illness, and the like, but 
not in mere secular, or trifling cases. How far this is 
true I will not venture to say; but, assuming the j90^mM- 
/i/yof suchinfluence,nocircumstancewould seem more 
likely. She also spoke of ^fomdain of crystal water, 
in which, she said, the " lady" bathed her, before she 
could follow her to behold the scenery she afterwards 
described. This "lady" and "fountain" she fre- 
quently referred to, when in the trances, and, by this 
means, shewed that there was some connection be- 
tween the states of induced and spontaneous extasis. 
The following narrative will shew that, at least, some 
of the matters connected with these trances, cannot be 



188 80MH0LI8M AMD PSTCHSI8M. 

acooonted for by resolving them into mere imaginatiTe 
action ; bnt that there is a reaHiy in her extatic per- 
ceptional and that she then possesses a super-sensual 

gift. 

In the month of Jnly^ 1848, she told me, on a 

Saturday evening, while in the mesmeric state, that 
the ''lady was coming to her, in the night between 
Sunday and Monday, and that she would shew her a 
book with same writinff m, which she was to take and 
shew to me;*' and farther, that the " lady would come 
to her again, at a quarter past nine on Monday morn- 
ing when she would know more about it." I found 
her, as usual, on awaking, ignorant of what had tran- 
spired, and carefully concealed it firom her ; but men- 
tioned it to a firiend, w£om I requested to be present 
on Monday morning to witness the trance, should it 
occur. From the general drift of her remarks, and 
her connecting the books and the writing with the 
'' lady," I concluded, that, if there was any truth in 
her statements, one of three books was intended ; two 
of these were in the house, the other, a small pocket- 
bible, was not in the house; but experience having 
convinced me of the correctness of her predictions, I 
got this little bible, unknown to her, and put it, with 
the other two books, on the shelves with many more, 
taking care not to put them together. In the night 
she got up in a state very similar, if not quite like 
somnambulismy and descending two flights of stairs, 
unheard by me, she went to the book-shelves, and se- 
lected this very pocket-bible, and ascending the stairs 
with it, came to my room, the opening of the door of 
which aroused me. She walked up to me, and ad- 
dressing me in the peculiar way she then used to do, 
when mesmerised, she said, — '' I have brought you a 
book which the 'lady' wishes you to read to me." 
She was holding the book open over the top of her 
head, with the inside of the book next her. This I 
could see by the twilight; but, as I could not see 
whereabouts the book was opened, I went to get a 
candle for that purpose, but, in doing so, owing to the 



SXTASIS^ OB TRANCE. 189 

darkness^ I inadvertently knocked the book out of her 
hand. She picked it up^ and speedily found the place 
again^ by turning over the pages^ right and left, over 
her heady in her usual mesmeric manner, untU she 
said she had found the same place again« The pas- 
sage selected was Joshua, ch. i. w. 8, 9.* I read the 
passage to her ; she said, " Yes ! that is it, — ' Be of 
good courage,' that is what the lady reads.'' When 
I began to read beyond the tenth verse, she stopped 
me^ saying, 'Hhe lady did not read that." She appeared 
quite pleased and relieved by my reading to her, and 
soon spontaneously awoke. The next morning, she 
remembered being out of bed, and that I had led her 
up stairs ; but she did not recollect for what she got 
out, or where she had been. * Frequently afterwards, 
by way of test, this Bible was given her when mes- 
merised, and she was asked, before many persons, to 
point out this text, which she invariably did, without 
attempting to look at it, but by feeling the pages, and 
twrrdng them over while the book was over her head. 
She also told me circumstances connected with the 
history of that book, which, she said, the lady told 
her, and in which the " lady" was concerned ; which 
/ am positive she could not know by any ordinary means; 
for some were only known to myself! She was asked 
to tell by what means she found the passage, as she 
could not read, and was also in the dark ? She re- 
plied, that the " 'lady ' had a similar book, but a 
larger one, open upon the left arm, where it lay with- 
out any weight, and that the *lady' pointed, with 
the right hand, to the same pages and text : That her 
own hands seemed guided in their movements by the 
' lady's' hand ; and that when she had got to the 
right place, she could no longer turn the pages, either 
to the right or left ! " How far this was fancy, or some 

* '* This book of the Jaw sball not depart out of thy mouth ; but thon sbalt 
meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to 
all that is written therein ; for then sbalt thou make thy way prosperous, 
and then thou sbalt have good success. Have not I commanded thee ? 
Be strong and of good courage, be not afraid, neither be thou dismayed : 
for the LoBO thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest." 



190 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHEI8M. 

real qtuui magnetic drawingi it is impossible rightly 
to determine ; but it is certain, that on trying her 
with the same bible a few months afterwards, when 
she had lost the connecting inflaence, she could not, 
after repeated trials, find the passage as she previously 
had done. On the Monday morning, the friend al- 
luded to came, as if accidentally, soon after nine 
o'clock, and we observed Emma biecoming strange in 
her appearance; and, almost to the minute stated, 
she relapsed into the state of extasis. In this state, 
she explained how it was she was directed to the pas- 
sage in Joshua, and many other things of an interest- 
ing nature, which, to avoid repetition, I omit. She 
also appeared, at times, to be eating something. 

On Friday, July 14th, 1848, she said, while in the 
mesmeric state, that the '* lady'' wished her to shew 
me another chapter, and would come for that pur- 
pose, and that she should "ffo away" again, — ^that is, 
into the state of trance, at ten o'clock on Saturday. 
From a few words she said, now, and at another time 
when mesmerising her, I thought the subject was very 
similar to the vision of Peter, recorded in Acts, ch. x. 
About four o'clock, on Saturday morning, she came 
again to me ; but, this time, more in a state of trance 
than somnambulism. She had the same pocket-bible, 
and open over her head, at the part I had anticipated. 
I read the narrative to her : she said, ** That was it, 
and the ' lady' would tell her more bye and bye." She 
then aroused, but partiaUy recollected what had tran- 
spired, and expressed great fear of something like a 
lion, which she said came near her, but which the 
" lady" said would not be allowed to hurt her. At 
ten o'clock she went into the trance, as she had said, 
in the presence of myself and a friend. This state, 
like the former, lasted about half an hour. The re- 
sult of inquiries made in and out of the trance, were 
briefly as follows: She saw '^ a great thing" coming 
down out of the clouds to her, suspended at each 
comer by cords, and the manner of suspension she 
afterwards shewed with a piece of paper and some 



EXTASIS^ OB TRANCE. 191 

seizing cotton. When it was down^ it opened^ and all 
sorts of animals and birds^ and snakes and adders, 
got out of it. There were lions^ and other fierce 
looking animals^ but they all looked kindly at her. 
One^ who stood by^ took a bird^ and told her to eat : 
slie did so; but it did not seem to hurt the bird. 
Afterwards^ all went back^ and up again. I asked 
lier to inquire why she had such a vision? Her reply 
iwras very singular^ and I give it without comment. 
She said, " It was because people were beginning to 
doubt whether such a thing ever happened, audit was 
to shew that it was possible and true. No one had 
seen this since the man who first saw it, but she did 
not know his name.^^ She also said, that, before this 
vision, she saw the ^'lady,'^ but was not permitted 
to touch her, but now she was permitted to touch her 
too. Also, that she had, for the first time, a white 
dress given to her, but not so beautiful as the 
'' lad/s.^' 

On Thursday, September 28th, 1848, Emma went 
into a trance she had foretold nearly two months 
before : this was the most remarkable she had, and 
lasted nearly four hours, and was witnessed by several 
gentlemen, besides myself. As there are many per- 
sons desirous to know the fullest particulars of these 
remarkable states, I shall transcribe more fully from 
notes made two days afterwards; and the general 
manners, and statements, of this trance, will shew the 
nature of the others. One o'clock, p.m., was the time 
Emma had predicted for this trance. About a quarter 
before one, she complained of feeling mazy, and looked 
very strange. I left her, to make some preparation 
for the length of time I anticipated, from her state- 
ments, she would be in the trance. I returned to her 
just after the clock had struck, and found her seated 
in a chair, partially cataleptic^ with her eyes fixed, 
wide open, and staring, as it were, into vacuity. I 
spoke to her ; but, at first, she did not hear me : I 
then saw her eyes roll upwards and inwards^ as in the 
mesmeric state, and then the eyelids closed. She re- 



192 80MN0LISH AND PSTCHEISM. 

quested me *' not to take her away^'' that is^ not 
to interfere with the trance^ which I promised, and 
led her to a more convenient place, where she 
might recline. I found it was with difficulty she 
could stand, and I had to support her to the seat pre- 
pared for her. She soon sunk into a complete sort <rf 
lethargy; occasionally moving her jaws, as if eating; 
at other times, speaking, as if to invisible personages: 
the principal remarks were questions, or such obser- 
vations as seemed to repeat the answers she had re- 
ceived. After speaking, she appeared conscious of 
our presence, and rationally replied to what was said 
to her, and described what was visible to her percep- 
tions. Then she relapsed into a state of unconscious- 
ness to outward things, and, after a time, returned to 
the consciousness of our presence. These alternations 
continued to the close; but some minutes before j 
arousing, her manner indicated that a change was ^ 
passing over her. When she returned to the normal 
state, she was quite low and prostrated, and it was 
some hours before she could take anv food. These 
protracted states, although interesting psychologicalfy, 
were prejudicial to her health, and prevented the use 
of her ordinary mesmeric powers. The colour did not 
leave her cheeks during this trance, nor did she be- 
come cold. I raised the eyelids several times to ex- 
amine the eyes, and found them always turned up, 
but manifesting a sort of tremulous, or reflex motion. 
She was pinched sharply, and suddenly, in various 
parts of the body, but did not evince the slightest 
sense of feeling. When asked,— "How do you see 
me? like as when you are mesmerised?'^ She re- 
plied, — "No; you seem like a shadow, or pale cloud; 
but I know it is you." " Why can you not see me 
as before ?'' "Because you are natural, and I am 
now higher up.'' " Can you see my limgs now, — or 
the things in the room?"* "No!" A gentleman 
in the room spoke to her, but she did not notice him. 
He then took her by the hand, and she at lengtb 
heard him, and said, " She could see him^ but only 



EXTASISj OR TRANCE. 193 

like a cloud.^' We enquired^ Can you see those around 
you in the spiiit plainly ? She replied^ " Yes: as plain 
SB men could see each other^ and that everything was 
real, and that she could touch them^ and feel them, 
and that they felt to her as solid as we do : but it was 
not until she saw the sheet with the animals that she 
was permitted to do so : before she only saw them. 
She said she .was very happy, and did not want to go 
back again*, but knew she was to do so, and felt sorry 
for it. The following paragraphs contain, in nearly 
her own words, the substance of what she saw and 
heard during this, and another similar trance, as 
elicited by questions put during, and after, the 
trance, and from her own recollections of what had 
transpired. 

'' When sitting in the chair, I felt as if something 
run up me, and I went mazy, and the room seemed 
as if it opened, and I was in another place, although 
I had some knowledge that I was still in the room ; 
my eyes were open, and I could not shut them. 
Afterwards, when they were shut, it seemed as if they 
were open. At first, many beings came to me, and pre- 
sently I seemed to be with them as one of themselves ; 
this was after I was removed to the other seat ; for tak- 
ing me up stairs, seemed to draw me away from them. I 
did not feel strange, or any alarm, nor did they ap- 
pear to think me strange or different to themselves. 
I felt with them just as I do now with you. There 
were many : some that I did not know, and some 
that I did know; some had been my companions when 
a child, and had been dead for years, but they knew 
me, and were glad to see me, and took me about 
gardens, hke paradise gardens. The 'lady' came 
first, and many others with her; she was with me the 
whole time. When I took hold of your hand, she 
looked and smiled, and seemed pleased. It appeared 
to me nearly the same each time I have been. I saw 
each time that, from the place where I entered this 

* Similar ezpressionB to this, and the desire to remain in a spiritualized 
mesmeric state, is represented by Cahagnet as a desire to commit suicide. 

9 



194 80MN0LISM AND P8YCHEISM. 

spirit-world^ there was a way leading to the right, 191- 
wards, to the good middle place; and away to the 
Iqft, downwards, to the bad middle place^ and there 
was a worse place lower down^ but I did not see to 
it. All along the way leading to the good middle 
placcj there were trees and flowers of yarions kinds 
growing, and loritings up (inscriptions) in many 
places. The letters were of different kinds and 
colours, but I could not tell what they meant. It 
was told me, that they were directions and instruc- 
tions, and that I must learn to read, that I may 
know what they mean. The good middle place 
seemed very large, and very many were there. Most 
that were there, staying there, were clothed in plain 
white loose dresses. I saw higher up, to the top of a 
hill, where, it was told me^ angels lived. I did not 
go straight up, but slanting to the side; the angels 
who came to meet me, came a nearer way than I 
went. After going to the right, upwards, for some 
time, I came to a beautiful fountain, or lake {pond, 
she sometimes called it,) silvery looking. A beautiful 
brook, or river, flowed from the top of the hill, down 
into the fountain. I never saw such beautiful crystal 
and shining water anywhere else. Round this foun- 
tain,'or lake, and on each side of the river, there grew 
the most beautiful flowers and trees I ever saw. The 
leaves which fell off these trees sparkled like gold and 
silver, as they lay along upon the ground. If a leaf 
fell off a tree, another leaf sprang forth directly, and 
the trees did not become bare, as here. The same, if 
a flower was plucked, another immediately sprang 
forth. No one can go up the hill until they have been 
bathed in that fountain ; I had to bathe in it, and 
drink the water, before I could ascend; then yea 
could go up on either side of the river. It was in 
this fountain I saw the beautiful fish I before spoke 
of, which was given me to eat; and it was in the 
walks about this river that I saw the fruit grow of 
which I ate. This fruit they eat as bread, but it is 
not bread, but most delicious fruit. It is something 



EXTASIS^ OR TRANCE. 195 

like an orange, with seeds in it:'^ — afterwards, she 
compared it to a pear, sweet, and with seeds in it^ — 
possibly something that seemed like a fig, or pomegra- 
nate. '^ After bathing in the fountain, and going up 
the hUl, I came down, and we sat down, round and 
near the fountain, and eat of the fruit, and many 
things were shewn and told me. 

" It seems as if the idea of what you should say 
comes into the mind, and they (the angels) tell you 
what you want to know. When I got with the angels, 
I seemed like one who had gone a journey and got 
home, but I could not tell how I went the journey: I 
only found myself among friends, and comfortable. 
When I was seated near the fountain, I asked, ' How 
people got there ?' meaning, how they left the world 
by death. It was told me, that persons were not al- 
ways dead when their friends thought so ; for all the 
actions of the body stop by degrees : it was sometimes 
two or three days after what was called death, before 
the spirit quite left the body, and rose to consciousness 
in the spirit-world ; but it was not always alike ; some 
were a longer, others a shorter, time. During this 
time, they were like a person asleep, and in a state 
betwixt this world and the other. The angels can 
see them before they can see the angels. They stand 
around them. Angels come down in pairs, two and 
two: I don^t recollect whether they were all male 
and female in the twos, but I do recollect that some 
were. You can instantly distinguish the sex, for the fe- 
males all have long hair, which flows down their back, 
and over their shoulders, like a cape ; but both sexes, 
that I saw, were dressed in long flowing robes. As 
soon as people rise into the spirit-world, angels talk 
to them, and tell them where they are, and endeavour 
to lead them upwards. If they are bad, they will not 
believe there any more than here, but are stubborn 
and obstinate. All people first awake in this middle 
place; the angels call it rest; (probably, resting^ 
place.) It looked very much like this world; the 
best middle place appeared about half-way up ; I did 

9* 



196 80MNOLI8M AND PBYCHBISlf. 

not see any houses or dwellings, but many trees and 
flowers. 

. '< I wanted to know what became of persons who 
killed themselves. I was told, that if persons had 
led a good life, and yet, firom double of mind, were 
led to kill themselves, they were kept a long while in 
the lower middle place, and suffered great punishment. 
That the angels prayed with them, and helped them ; 
and that if they had been really good, they would at last 
come out, and go higher up; but that they would 
have to stay a long while, and suffer a good deal, be- 
fore they could get rid of what they had done. But 
if the suicides had been bad people, they would never 
come out, bot sink down lower. No one can come 
out until changed, and these bad ones cannot be 
changed. 

" I thought that when children, or infants, died, 
they went to heaven directly, and remained infants 
for ever ; but, it was told me, that such is not the 
case. When infants die, they enter the other world 
as infant-spirits, but they do not remain infants, but 
grow up to, what we should call, about twenty years 
of age, and they never become older ; those persons 
who have left this world in old age, look like persons 
about forty, or thereabouts. When infants enter the 
other world, they are given in charge of female angels, 
who take care of them, and instruct them. 'Ebese 
angels do not feel it any trouble, but a pleasure^ to 
instruct them. I saw some of the schools high up, 
near the top of the hill. The little children were idl 
quite naked, and set in a circle, and the teacher in 
the midst. I saw them with books. I saw children, 
not bigger than a few months old here, walking 
about ; the angels teach them to walk, and they learu 
everything quicker than we do here. When they 
grow bigger they have clothes, and go to masters to 
learn. I did not see the masters^ schools ; I am to 
see them when I go again. I saw into the gardens, 
but was not permitted to enter them. 

*' Governess told me, that if infants were not bap- 




''IS, OE TRANCE. 197 

about^ and go neither to 
.old me^ that this is not 
heaven whether they are 
are not baptized here^ they 
antain^ hereafter. Baptism 
xul^ because it puts the name of 
j.ptism should be in the name of 
a white, stone-looking thing, hol- 
«vhich the water flows from the foun- 
j are dipped in there. I saw a representa- 
j.ve to the right, near the garden, but they 
ail it a grave, but a sepulchre. There was 
^lozing through into it. There was a stone in 
of it, which was drawn up, or vanished away 5 I 
J. not see how it went»^. I looked into the sepulchre, 
and saw the water running in. It was told me, that 
Jesus was baptized by John, and afterwards in the 
sepxdchre. I did not see the body of Jesus, but was 
told that he lajr there, and was baptized by the water. 
I was also told, that the baptism of infants here, was 
like the baptism of Jesus by John ; and that the bap- 
tism of infants near the fountain, was like the baptism 
of Jesus in the sepulchre/^ 

!Eaima had predicted another long trance, which 
oocorred on the 7th of November, and lasted nearly 
six hours : it was in this trance she became so univer- 
sally rigid. For the week previous, she had been 
quite abnormal in her manner, wishing to be very 
quiet and alone; several times she went spontaneously 
into the mesmeric state, and then her language shewed 
that she was occupied with the forthcoming extasis ; 
but in her wakefiU state she knew nothing of it, and 
referred her feelings to bodily ailment. Once I found 
her singing a sort of infantile rhyme ; on asking the 
reason of her doing so, she replied, — " I am only 
singing with the little children under the trees.'* Of 
this trance I have only preserved shorter notes. She 
said : — '^ I felt mazy, and then all went dark, and then 
became light. I first saw four little lambs, which were 
yoked in pairs to a sort of carriage^ and passed 



198 80MNOLI8M AND PSTCHEI8M. 

rapidly by me^ to the right; as before^ the 'lady/ 
and others^ came to meet me. We went by the 
fountaiQ I before saw^ and further on^ towards the 
gardens. I then saw a sort of large palace, and I 
went towards the door, and sat down, because I felt 
tured with the long way ; I did not feel tired before, 
nor did I go so far. Whfle sitting, tired with the 
way, some came and totiched me, and said — 'rest :" 
and I no longer felt tired. I got up, and went into 
the garden, — ^into four gardens, — all of which were 
beautiful. Some of the walks seemed as if gravelled, 
and some as if formed of scales of silver ; but it was 
not gravel nor silver. I saw many pigeons [doves ?] 
flying about among the trees, and beauti^ fruit 
growing there. The fruit was given me to eat; it 
was most delicious, of the shape of a pear, but dark- 
coloured inside, juicy, and full of seeds. I walked in 
the garden for a long while, and saw many there. At 
the end of the last garden I saw a school, taught by 
masters. All the children were dressed. The females 
had fnller dresses than the males, and they were all 
in white. They had books, and seemed to read out 
of these books, and learned very quickly ; much more 
so than here. 

" When near the palace I saw a sort of carriage 
come down from above to the ground, it was a kind 
of orange colour. There was a beautiful angel in it, 
clothed like the rest, it seemed only one angel in the 
carriage and at stepping out, but afterwards I saw 
twOy and it appeared o« if the female issued from the 
male. When I saw two I was nearer to them, than 
when I saw one, but I was never close to these angels. 
I wanted to know what the carriage was, and what 
it meant? It was told me, that it was the one's 
carriage ; and then I wanted to know what was meant 
by one ? They said, the meaning was, that when a 
male and female angel willed the same, and were both 
of the same mind, Jesus made them one, and then 
they called them The one ; they called it united, but 
I did not hear it called married. In subsequent 



BXTASIS^ OR TRANCB. 199 

trances she has frequently spoken of this scene, 
and once said she saw a pair made OTiBy by having 
their fingers linked together, and a blessing put upon 
them, and that all who were made one, seemed to go 
into this carriage. 

"I saw the sepulchre again — (she called it the 
cemetery, until corrected, and before could not get at 
the full sound. of the word, until from her half-pro- 
nunciation I understood what was meant, and pro- 
nounced it to her.) It looked something as before, 
but not quite like it ; there were angels around it, 
clothed in white j and I saw John there, and he ap- 
peared, to be dressed richer than the angels : he was 
a tall pale looking man, with a mild countenance. 
Bat I was told that the dress in which the angels ap* 
peared was not their true dress, but the dress suited 
to their appearance at the sepulchre. In heaven 
they are dressed according to their state : the clothes 
are not taken on and off as here, but seem to belong 
to the person of the angel, and change, by seemingly 
vanishing away. John touched the lid of the sepul- 
chre, which then opened. The lid seemed as if made 
of fine marble, but it was not marble. I saw water 
oozing through as before, and, at the bottom of the 
sepulchre, clothes lying, folded carelessly. (" In a 
QTuck'* — she said — a Lancashire phrase for things 
heaped together disorderly.) They appeared to be 
striped with different coloured lights, and from them 
stars issued, and seemed to ascend and fix themselves 
on a white marble thing at a little distance ; they 
were stars with points and shone brilliantly. Pre* 
sently all the stars seemed to unite in one very bril- 
liant star, and then the marble thing spread open 
very wide, and from the points of this centre star, 
other stars issued in all dii^ctions, and lighted up all 
the heavens, and gave light everywhere. I asked 
what these things meant ? It was said to me ' Speak 
not* I felt grieved, as if I had done wrong, but 
John touched me and said ^ Grieve not ;* and I then 
ceased to grieve. After all this had vanished, I was 



200 SOMNOLIBlff AND PSTCHSISM. 

told tbat it had reference to the resurrection of Jeans, 
and was a sign or token to the angels that He had 
risen/' I have used the term angels, as she did ; but 
it is evident^ that she meant the same as good spirits; 
the term angel, in her language, being synonymous 
with the perfected spirit of a good man. 

Since the time to which the above notes refer, 
Emma has had similar states of extasis, and foretold 
them in the same way, but none have been of the 
same spiritual or religious character. One of her re- 
vealments, of which she has spoken in two, if not 
three trances, is very carious, and connected with her 
former visions ; and being a subject on which Locke 
speculated, I give a summary of her statements, with- 
out offering any opinion as to the probabiUty or cor- 
rectness of it. Before a trance which occurred in 
January of this year, she said, in foretelling it, that 
she should know something about stiU-bom children. 
The revealment was as 'follows. If the foetus died 
before '' it had stirred,'^ it was not immortal, because 
the soul or spirit was not sufficiently developed to 
have an independent life. But when it " had stirred" 
and acquired this independent life, then it had the 
germ of immortality. If it died at any time from this 
period, but before birth, it was transferred to the 
spirit- world, but did not mix with those children who 
had breathed or taken food here. The latter had by 
this means become fully developed. They were placed 
in a sort of downy receptacle near ^' the gardens,^ 
where the children were seen. Here they remain for 
A time equivalent to the period of gestation, and are 
then, as it were, bom into the spirit- world. Matronly 
female spirits had charge of this receptacle, and knew 
when any of these young immortals were to be re- 
moved. She said, she once saw four of these female 
spirits carrying one of these infants in a sort of 
couch, formed by the slight union of their fingers and 
the folds of their robes, and they took it and bathed 
it in " the fountain,'^ and then it could walk^ and mix 
with the other in&nts. 



EXTASISy OB TRANCE. 201 

I took occasion^ in these later trances^ to question 
her on the most intricate points of physiology ; but I 
found that she had no perception^ or could derive no 
information^ on some points^ but in others she had; 
such as the action of life in the brain^ and the course 
of the currents in the body. I also found that matters 
on which I had enquired in the mesmeric state^ were 
sometimes referred to^ and she has told me when those 
states of extasis would arise^ in which she could learn 
things that she could not know by ordinary mes- 
merism. These^ generally^ were cases in which some 
person involved in the enquiry^ had departed this 
life. . 

In one case^ where^ as an experiment^ an enquiry 
was being made relative to a missing will^ she told 
me^ not only what I asked her, but spoke of other 
things which neither myself nor she knew anything ^* 
about, nor had I been asked about what she said; but 
I was afterwards informed that what she said was 
correct. This was a description of some old furniture, 
and some bags with money in, in an Irish town, the 
existence of which things was perfectly unknown to 
me ; but they were connected with the missing docu- 
ment, and Emma professed to derive her knowledge of 
the existence of these things, from the spirit of the de- 
parted. She asked me about the removal of this money, 
as if I knew of it. My correspondent afterwards in- 
formed me of the correctness of Emma's statements ; 
but refused to continue the inquiry, from a supersti- 
tious dread of holding communication with the dead. 
This case, as far as it went, was an excellent one, 
to prove the continued existence of man after death. 
I was desired by a gentleman to investigate 
a mysterioj^s murder which occurred nearly twenty 
years ago. No particulars whatever were communi- 
cated to me, beyond that some bones which were 
sent me, were found in a very peculiar manner, and 
that there were reasons for supposing them to be the 
bones of a person long missing. I am precluded 
from going into the particulars of this case, further 



202 SOMNOLI8M AND FSYCHEI8M. 

than that I found, from subsequent letters, that the 
the skull was fractured in the part she said it was ; 
that the bones were in the condition and found in 
such a place and manner as she described^ and that 
her description of the supposed murderer, corres- 
ponded exactly with an individual suspected I I ex- 
pended a good deal of time on this case, on account 
of its interest, and as another test of clainroyance^ 
and for the satisfaction of the gentleman, who had 
himself taken much trouble to procure the bones, and 
a portion of the clothing of the missing man, as a 
medium of enquiry. Emma several times spoke of 
this affair in the trance state, and, from the general 
correctness of her statements as far as the circum- 
stances are known, it would seem that the whole 
transaction was gradually made known to her, and 
that she saw in the trances, a representation of the 
occurrence. As I said before, in respect to lost pro- 
perty, my object in these instances, was not to meddle 
with matters of police, but to test the faculty which 
Emma possesses. I have not therefore made enquiry 
or published statements relative to recent murders, as 
was commonly reported, and I only now mention the 
above, as an instance where the state of extasis en- 
abled Emma to know through the departed, as she 
said, the nature of an awful transaction, which she 
knew nothing of in the normal state. Another curi- 
ous feature in enquiries where departed persons were 
involved, was observed. She would sometimes speak 
of these persons, and say she could see them, but that 
she could not communicate with them, because they 
had not gone away long emmgh, or had not passed into 
the proper state; and she has fixed the time, when, she 
said, such communication could be had, in conformity 
with what she represented as the law of the spirit- 
world. 

Should the foregoing notes be displeasing to some 
readers, or be considered derogatory to the character 
of a book professedly written to discuss the subject of 
mesmerism, on scientific principles, let it be remem- 



EXTASIS^ OR TRANCE. 203 

bered, that in endeavouring to set forth the science of 
the soul, as revealed by mesmerism^ it was scarcely 
possible^ and certainly would not be just to the reader, 
to suppress those revealments which most directly 
bear on the subject of the soul's nature, its continued 
existence after separation from the body, and the na- 
ture and laws of the world in which it dwells. As 
observed at the outset of these notes, the writer is in 
these cases but a reporter, andthat report will be judged 
according to the. reader's faith, inclination, or know- 
ledge. The moral tendency of such revealments can- 
not be questioned ; they seem to afford a key to un- 
lock some of the mysterious narratives of the New 
Testament, or at all events, are suggestive of an ex- 
planation, and they tend to remove much of that 
superstitious dread, which is entertained of another 
life. I would just observe, by way of allaying the 
suspicions of the strict Protestant reader, that the 
doctrine of a middle, or intermediate state, was an 
article of faith in the primitive church, and has been 
stated by learned divines, to be meant by the .clause 
in the Apostle's Creed, " He descended into hell" — 
or Hades ; and that in none of these trances, have I 
observed anything to countenance the Bomish notion 
of Purgatory. 



r^ 



CHAPTER X. 

PmACnCB AMD USB OF VITAL MAONSTIBM, Oft mSmftlSM. 

The direct use of vital magnetism^ or mesmerism, is 
as a CuKATiYE Agknt, to aUeviate and remove human 
suffering. In this view it is of universal application, 
and at all times available. Numerous authentic cases 
are on record, and many more are known in private 
circles, where the most remarkable cures have been 
effected by magnetic treatment only, after the ardinary 
medical remedies have proved useless. And, what is 
well for suffering humanity, the soothing, healing in- 
fluence of vital magnetism may be adequately received, 
without the coma, or loss of consciousness requisite for 
displaying merely amusing experiments. Cerebral lu- 
cidity or clairvoyance, is a faculty only occasionally 
developed in individuals of peculiar constitution, and 
as already intimated, its most legitimate and certain 
use, is as a means of assisting the medical practitioner 
in his diagnosis of inward disease. 

The practice of mesmerism or vital magnetism as a 
curative agent, is a very simple process ; the induction 
of the state of coma, or the mesmeric sleep, is equally 
simple, but generally requires more continued appUca- 
tion. But I am led to conclude, from such experience 
as I have had, that the result depends more on the 
pecuUar constitution of the subject, than on the sup- 
posed power of the magnetiser, or mesmeriser. Some 
patients yield to the influence at the first sitting; 
others, after continued trials, remain comparatively, 
insensible to its influence. All that is required as 
preliminaries to success, consists, in patience, a proper 
disposition, quietness, and freedom from disturbanee. 
Let the subject sit or recline in the easiest and most 
comfortable posture. The operator should be seated 
in front, and then calmly take both hands of his pa- 



P&ACTICB OV MESMBRISM. 205 

tient in his left hand, placing his right hand on the 
patient's head, and steadfiutly look at the patient's 
eyes^ throwing, as it were, as much of his influence 
into them, as possible, which will be effected by a 
concentration of purpose, and a determination to do 
good. After retaining this posture for a few minutes, 
let the operator move his right hand gently forwards 
and downwards over the patient^s face, and down to 
the waist ; the hand and finger points may either be 
passed at a distance of about one inch from the pa- 
tient, or the fingers may gently touch him. After 
reaching the waist, withdraw the hand about ten or 
twelve inches from the subject, and, in again eleyating 
it, hold the fingers backwards, and incline them for- 
wards again when the hand reaches the patient's head, 
and then pass downwards as before. These are what 
are understood by Mesmebic Passes. The patient 
should keep his eyes steadily fixed on those of the 
operator, and yield himself unreservedly to his influ- 
ence. 1£ this course is persevered in for twenty or 
thirty minutes, some effect will generally be observed; 
and if the subject is susceptible, or a sensitive, the 
^^ sleejf^ may be induced even at the first sitting. 
This is the method I generally pursue, and is the most 
simple, and as successful as any other. Some have 
given a variety of directions, as to holding the thumbs, 
pressing in the shoulders, and other modes, which to 
me savour of quackery and mystery; besides being, in 
my estimation, useless. Sometimes, when I have 
made the passes downwards for some time, looking at 
the patient, and have not found them yielding to my 
influence, I have closed the patient's eyes, and pressed 
the fingers of my right hand gently on the eyelids, and 
retained them there for a few minutes, at the same 
time concentrating all my efforts. This succeeds with 
some patients, better than the continual stare. If it 
is^esired to save so much personal labour, or to pre-- 
pare the patient for the mesmeric sleep, he may be 
directed to stare fixedly for some time daily, at some 
small distinct object, such as a pencil case^ or small 



206 80MNOLI8M AND P8TCHEI8M. 

magnet^ held^ or fixed near the eyes ; but I do not re- 
commend this mode^ va it is attended with a painful 
sensation, and causes some determination of blood to 
the parts; and has^ I think^ a tendency to weaken the 
optic nerves. 

It may be desirable sometimes to combine the odylic 
force^ and terrestrial magnetism^ with the influence of 
vital magnetism. In this case, let the patient be seated 
in a shaded room with a southern aspect^ and a brass 
wire be carried out into the bright sunshine^ and the 
other end be held in the patient's left hand^ and re- 
tained there ; or else the point occasionally directed to 
painful parts^ during the sitting. If the room has not a 
southern aspect^ the wire should be carried round until 
fully within the range of the sun's rays. The operator 
may proceed with the passes^ while the patient holds 
the wire^ in the manner above directed. If it is de- 
sired to combine terrestrial magnetism also, or the 
odylic influence which flows from the magnet, a 
powerful horse-shoe magnet may be suspended over 
the patient's head, who should be seated with his back 
to the north, and looking towards the south east, so 
as to be as nearly as possible in the line of the varia- 
tion of the compass. The operator must now take a 
bar magnet in his right hand, holding the north pole 
just level with the tips of his fingers, and then make 
the passes downwards, as above directed. The appli- 
cation of these subtile influences, may also be combined 
with the use of common electricity, by either insulating 
the patient, and forming the electrical bath, or by the 
gentle transmission of the electric aura. 

As a general rule, more striking and speedy effects 
may be expected when the ^^ sleep" can be produced; 
but it should never be forgotten, that coma is not ab- 
solutely required in order to produce soothing and 
curative effects. When the object is to relieve pain, 
or remove disease, first try to produce the simplest 
state of coma, by the means already pointed out. If 
the patient does not speedily feel soothed or drowsy, 
or even if he should fall into the coma, then simply 



PRACTICE OF MBSMEBISM. 207 

make passes with the right hand^ or with both hands^ 
downwards y slowly and gently oyer the parts affected ; 
allowing the fingers lightly to touch the person of the 
patient^ and tai^g care to shake the hands well after 
each pass, just as if you were shaking something off 
them. This action may be smiled at by the incre- 
dulous and inexperienced in these matters ; but it is 
absolutely necessary , for if it is not done^ the labour of 
the operator may be thrown away^ even if he does not 
increase the malady of his patient. I have had proofs 
that in certain conditions of the nervous system^ dis- 
ease maybe introduced into the body, and transmitted 
by passes from one subject to another. For the same 
reason, the operator, after leaving a patient afSicted 
with a painfdl disease, should invariably, not only well 
shake his hands, but wash them, and hold them, if 
possible, for a short time under a stream of running 
water^ before he ventures to magnetise another pa- 
tient. 

It is in nervous diseases that the influence of vital 
magnetism is most felt, and in none more speedily 
than in painful nervous headaches. In this case, the 
sufferer may, in ordinary cases, relieve himself, without 
the aid of an operator; but the magnetizer's influence 
i8 generally most powerM. In these, and similar 
affections of the head, I have found the greatest bene- 
fit to arise if the passes were made in the course of 
the sinuses of the dura-mater, and probably, because 
the vital currents act on the venoi^ currents within 
the sinuses. In these cases, the passes should be 
made, with both hands placed close together, from the 
forehead over the crown of the head to the nape of the 
neck; here gently press the fingers and then separate 
the hands, and draw each hand gently forwards under 
the ears and down the neck, and then shake off the 
influence. Begin again from the forehead, passing 
horizontally backwards over the ears, until the fingers 
again meet in the nape of the neck, and then forwards 
and doumwards as before. This will generally relieve 
headache in five or ten minutes, if properly performed. 



208 80MNOLI8M AND P8YCHEISM. 

If the patient unexpectedly go into the state of ^'sleep^^ 
or '' comay'^ no fear need be felt. Fresh patients will 
generally awaken spontaneously^ after a short time of 
apparent unconsciousness ; but if they do not awake^ 
by continued upward and backward passes^ from the 
chest over the face and head, or by upwardly fanning 
the face^ the patient will be aroused. Some pass the 
thumbs quickly along the eyebrows from the nose^ 
outwards, and blow, or throw water in the face; but 
such proceedings, will be scarcely ever^ if at all, neces- 
sary. 

But, besides mere headache, the influence of vital 
magnetism, or mesmerism, may be most beneficiaUy 
applied in all nervous diseases; — ^in incipient and 
partial insanity ; giddiness and stupor ; delirium tre- 
mens, and other affections of $the brain ; in all painful 
nervous diseases of the body ; neuralgic affections^ 
rheumatism, lumbago, sciatica, and gout; and in 
most diseases of the internal organs. And in all ap- 
propriate cases the magnetic, or mesmeric, influence, 
will be more effectual, if combined with appropriate 
medicines, especially if these medicines are impreg- 
nated with the vital magnetic and odylic influence. 
But in carrying out a vital magnetic, or mesmeric, 
mode of treatment, the whole intention must be of a 
soothing, strengthening, and, in some cases, of a 
gently stimulating character. None of the old system^ 
-^of excessive bleeding, blistering, setoning, and pur- 
ging, must be allowed. In fact, there is little doubt^ 
but that, under this once common system, many pa- 
tients, labouring under diseases of the lungs, have 
been sent to a premature grave : and that many have 
died, who would have stood a chance of recovery if 
they had been left entirely to nature. There can be 
no doubt, and, in this case, I am speaking from posi- 
tive experience, that by the mode of treatment pointed 
out, all curable diseases may be removed in the quick- 
est, safest, and pleasantest manner. In this mode, 
the physician is labouring to impart a healthful vigour 
to the living nervous system^ and is thus acting in 



PRACTICE OF MESMERISM. 209 

aooordance with the principles of nature in curing 
disease. But^ while censuring the old practice of 
medicine in the cases above named^ fairness obliges 
me to say that equal blame attaches to some enthusi^ 
astic mesmerists^ who^ &om their partial knowledge^ 
are led to despise and misrepresent all medical treat- 
ment. The very circumstance of true clairvoyants 
prescribing medicines^ proves, that those most under 
its influence perceive mesmerism to be only one, 
among other means, of restoring and preserving 
health. 

The practice of mesmerism, or vital magnetism, 
onght, like that of medicine, to be considered, as a 
sacred calling, too important to be made into a mere 
show, and, except in some instances, fitted only for 
the control and direction of the responsible and edu- 
cated medical practitioner; but it cannot be expected 
that medical men should generally be the actual mes- 
merisers, as, if they are to be remunerated on the 
same scale as their professional brethren, they would 
not be able to bestow sufficient time. To carry fully 
out the uses of mesmerism as a curative agent, re- 
quires a class of properly adapted and trained male 
and female mesmerisers, to act under the super- 
intendence of qualified medical practitioners; and, 
perhaps, it would be most successfully practised in 
estabUshments similar to hydropathic institutions, 
where all the advantages of such an establishment 
would be Combined with more general means of 
cure. 

In compliance with custom, I have used the gene- 
rally adopted terms of mesmerism, or vital mag- 
netism, in describing the influence flowing from the 
human body, and its use. The first is unmeaning ; 
the second is apt to convey the idea that the influence 
is identical with terrestrial magnetism. Beichenbach 
has given the term odyle to this influence, considering 
it the same as that flowing from the activity of light, 
heat, and chemical action. This I consider very 
doubtful. That the influence flows from the body is 



210 SOMNOLISM AND PSTCH£ISM. 

certain ; no less certain^ I am induced to think, is it, 
that the nUnd influences the body, and is the primary 
agent in this action. As I have adopted the classical 
and Scripture term psyche, to signify that part of the 
spiritual organism more immediately concerned in 
mesmeric, or vital magnetic phenomena, and have 
thence suggested Pstcheism as a proper term for the 
knowledge of the soul and its properties^ obtained by 
this means ; I considered, that if a name of kindred 
sound could be found, that would convey an idea both 
of the nature of the influence and of its source^ it 
would be better than using an unmeaning, or wrong, 
one. Hence, in the first edition of this work, I pro- 
posed to call this soothing and healing influence, 
Parapsycheism, from the Greek words, parapsyche, to 
soothe, or comfort, and psyche, the animal-soul^ or 
mind. Parapsycheism would, therefore, signify that 
soothing influence that flows from the mind in con- 
nection with the body ; and to transmit this influence, 
would be to parapsycheise, — not psycheise, as stated 
in the ''Zoist/' If these words were adopted, we 
should have two euphonious terms, having a definite 
and appropriate meaning, instead of the present un- 
meaning and erroneous ones; and custom would 
soon reconcile both the eye and ear to their form and 
use. 



APPENDIX. 



Illustrations op the activity op the Internal ^Ie- 
MORY. — In the Autobiography of Sir John Baxrow, it is stated 
that the late Lady Spencer wrote to him, requesting his 
influence to procure a copy of a letter written by Admiral, 
then Captain, Beaufort, to the late Dr. W. Hyde WoUas- 
ton, describing his own sensations and thoughts, of body 
and mind, while in the act of drowning, when a young 
man, in Portsmouth Harbour. This letter is higUy in- 
teresting, and remarkably corroborative of the existence of 
the internal memory which becomes conscUmsly active, in the 
higher and more interior stages of the mesmeric extasis; it is, 
also, strikingly in harmony with what I have repeatedly ob- 
served; namely, that in the state of extasis, there is some- 
times presented before the internal memory, a sort of phan- 
tasmagoric representation, in which the occurrences of 
years appear compressed into the compass of as many mi- 
nutes or seconds. The letter is as follows, and appears to 
have been written about 1825. — " Dear Dr. WoUaston. — 
The following circumstances, which attended my being 
drowned, have been drawn up at your desire; they had 
not struck me as being so curious as you consider them, 
because, from two or three persons, who, like myself, had 
been recovered from a similar state, / have heard a detail 
of their feelings, which resembled mine as nearly as was 
consistent tvUh our different constitutions and dispo- 
sitions. 

" Many years ago, when I was a youngster on board 
one of His Majesty's ships in Portsmouth Harbour, after 
sculling about in a very small boat, I was endeavouring to 
fasten her alongside the ship to one of the scuttlings ; in 
foolish eagerness I stepped upon the gunwale ; the boat, 
of course, upset, and I fell into the water, and, not knowing 
how to swim, all my efforts to lay hold, either of the boat 
or the floating skulls, were fruitless. The transaction had 



212 APPENDIX. 

not been observed by the sentinel on the gangwaj, and, 
therefore, it was not till the tide had drifted me some dis- 
tance astern of the ship, that a man in the foretop saw me 
splashing in the water, and gave the alarm. The first 
lieutenant instantly, and gallantly, jumped overboard, the 
carpenter followed his example, and the gunner hastened 
into a boat, and puUed after them. 

With the violent, but vain, attempts, to make myself heard, 
I had swallowed much water ; I was soon exhausted bj my 
struggles, and, before any relief reached me, I had sunk below 
the surface — ^all hope had fled — ^all exertion ceased — and I 
felt that I was drowning. So far, these facts were either par^ 
tially remembered after my recovery, or supplied by those 
who had latterly witnessed the scene ; for, during an interval 
of such agitation, a drowning person is too much occupied 
in catching at every passing straw, or too much absorbed 
by alternate hope and despair, to mark the succession of 
events very accurately. Not so, however, with the facts 
which immediately ensued; my mind had then undergone 
the sudden revolution which appeared to you so remarkable 
— and all the circumstances of which, are now as vividly 
fresh in my memory as if they had occurred but yesterday. 
"From the moment that all exertion had ceased — which 
I imagine was the immediate consequence of complete suf- 
focation — a calm feeling of the most perfect tranquility 
superseded the previous tumultuous sensations, — ^it might 
be called apathy, certainly not resignation, for drowning no 
longer appeared to be an evil, — I no longer thought of 
being rescued, nor was I in any bodily pain. On the con- 
trary, my sensations were now of rather a pleasurable cast, 
partaking of that dull, but contented sort of feeling, which 
precedes the sleep produced by fatigue. Though the senses 
were thus deadened, not so the mind ; its activity seemed 
to be invigorated in a ratio which defies all description^ — 
for thought rose after thought, with a rapidity of succes- 
sion that is not only indescribable, but, probably, incon- 
ceivable, by any one who has not himself been in a similar 
situation. The course of these thoughts I can even now, 
in a great measure, retrace ; — ^the event which had just 
taken place, — the awkwardness which produced it, — the 
bustle it must have occasioned (for I had observed two 
persons jump from the chains), — ^the effect it would have 
on a most affectionate father, — the manner in which he 



APPENDIX. 213 

would disclose it to the rest of the familj, — and a thousand 
other circumstances minutely associated with home, — were 
the^r^^ series of reflections that occurred. They took then 
a ¥dder range;-— our last cruise, — ^a former voyage and 
shipwreck, — ^my school — the progress I had made there, 
and the time I had misspent, — and even all my hoyish 
pursuits and adventures. Thus travelling hackwards, every 
incident of my past life seemed to me to gla:nce across my 
recollection in retrograde succession ; not, however, in 
mere otidme as here stated, but the picture JiUed up, with 
every minute and collateral feature ; in short, the whole 
period of my existence seemed to be placed before me in a 
kind of panoramic review, and each act of it seemed to be 
accompanied by a consciousness of right or wrong, or by 
some reflection on its cause or its consequences ; indeed, 
many trifling events, which had been long forgotten, then 
crowded into my imagination, and with the character of 
recent familiarity. 

^^ May not all this be some indication of the almost in- 
finite power of memory with which we may awaken in 
another world, and thus be compelled to contemplate our 
past Hves ? Or might it not, in some degree, warrant the 
inference that death is only a change, or modification, of 
our existence, in which there is no real pause or interruption. 
But however that may be, one circumstance was highly re- 
markable, that the innumerable ideas which floated into 
my mind were all retrospective ; yet I had been religiously 
brought up— my hopes and fears of the next world had 
lost nothing of their early strength, and at any other pe- 
riod, intense interest and awful anxiety would have been 
excited by the mere idea that I was floating on the thresh- 
hold of eternity ; yet at that inexplicable moment, when I 
had a full conviction that I had all already crossed that 
threshold, not a ^single thought wandered into the future. 
I was wrapt entirely in the past. The length of time that 
was occupied by this deluge of ideas, or rather the short- 
ness of time into which they were condensed, I cannot now 
state with precision, yet certainly two minutes could not 
have elapsed from the moment of suflbcation, to my being 
hauled up. 

The strength of the flood tide made it expedient to pull 
the boat at once to another ship, where I underwent the 
vulgar process of emptying the water, by letting my head 



214 APPEMDIX. 

hang downward, then bleeding, chafing, and even admi- 
nistering gin ; but mj sulnneraion had been reallj so brief, 
that according to the aooonnt of the lookers-on, I was very 
qoicklj restored to animation. 

" Mj feelings while life was returning were the reverse, 
in every poin^ of those which have been described above. 
One single, but confused idea — a miserable belief that I 
was drowning— dwelt upon mj mind, instead of the multi- 
tude of clear and definite ideas which had recently rushed 
through it — a helpless anxiety — ^a kind of continuous night- 
mare, seemed to press heavily on every sense, and to pre- 
vent the formation of any distinct thought, and it was with 
difficulty that I became convinced that I was really alive. 
Again, instead of being absolutely free fi*om ail bodily pain, 
as in my drowning state, I was now tortured with pain, all 
over me ; and though I have been since wounded in several 
places, and have often submitted to severe surgical disci- 
pline, yet my sufierings at that time were far greater, at 
least in general distress. On one occasion I was shot in 
the lungs, and after lying on the deck at night for some 
hours, bleeding from other wounds, I at length fainted. 
Now as I felt sure that the wound in the lungs was mortal, 
it will appear obvious that the overwhelming sensation 
which accompanies fainting, must have produced a perfect 
conviction that I was then in the act of dying. Tet 
nothing in the least resembling the operations of my mind 
when drowning then took place ; and when I began to re- 
cover I returned to a clear conception of my real state. 

" If these involuntary experiments on the operation of 
death, afford any satisfaction or interest to you, they will 
not have been suffered quite in vain, by Yours, very truly, 
F. Beaupobt." 

This letter of Admiral Beaufort (says Sir John Barrow) 
must give rise to various suggestions. It proves that the 
spirit of man may retain its full activity — ^we may perhaps 
say, an increased activity — ^when freed from the trammels 
of the flesh, at least when all the functions of the body are 
deprived of animal power, and the spirit has become some- 
thing like the type and shadow of that which we are taught 
to believe concerning the immortality of the soul. 

The reader will perceive one essential difference in the 
experience of Admiral Beaufort and the results of the mes- 
meric extasis, inasmuch as he could recollect in the ordi- 



APPENDIX. 215 

narj state of outward consciousness, what had transpired in 
the state of inner consciousness ; but this, as already shewn, 
occurs after the state of spiritual extasis or trance, and the 
Admiral's case is another illustration of the state of trance, 
and of the higher mesmeric state, being analogous to par- 
tial death. 

As another instance of the crowding of the events 
of a series of years into the perceptions of a few minutes, 
I may mention the following case. I had occasion to send 
Emma, mentally, to see a lady who resides in view of the 
Castle in Edinburgh. Some months afterwards, the lady 
with her husband called on me in Bolton. Emma was put 
into the mesmeric or psychic state, inthe lady's presence, and 
she unexpectedly, near the close of the sitting, told her, 
that when she came to see her, she was attracted by a large 
old house or building on a hill, and that she saw things 
there at which she was much frightened. From some re- 
marks, it was evidently the old castle that she meant, and 
she spoke of seeing a very high lady there, to whom people 
went down upon the knee, but that notwithstanding her 
rank she was very unhappy, for she was very fond of the 
priests, and her husband and the people did not like them. 
She then, evidently went over the times of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, spoke of the domestic troubles, &c., the ancient fur- 
niture of the castle, and the tapestried rooms in which Mary 
had dwelt, and eventually spoke of her decapitation. Her 
description of the dresses, &c., was most graphic, and quite in 
character with the times. But what was most singular, she 
said that she did not see the persons and things she de- 
scribed, for she knew that the persons had been "shelled" — 
that is dead, for a great many years ; but she saw the marks 
of what she spoke. Hence it would seem that the mere 
spot, could recall the long train of eventful occurrences. 
She was asked trAy she went into the castle ? but this she 
could not answer. When in Edinburgh myself, I went into 
the castle, and walked round the ramparts, but did not go 
into any of the rooms; I also walked round Holyrood 
House, but did not enter the palace. The gentleman who 
witnessed this sitting, thought that my having been so 
lately in the castle was the cause of Emma being attracted 
towards it ; this may be so ; but I had not at any time 
sent her there, or said anything to her of Scottish history ; 
and however attracted, her mind could not have been many 



216 APPEKDIX. 

minutes drawn to the sutject, as I, apparently, fullj occu- 
pied her at the sitting alluded to with the lady's case. 

A siNGULAB Dream, illustrative of the Law of 
Mental Association. — On the morning of the twenty- 
first of February, 1851, I received a letter from London, 
from my sister there; but as the direction was in a rounder 
hand than usual, and I had no expectation at that time of 
receiving a letter, I did not discover who the writer was, 
until I had opened the letter. Emma saw the letter lying 
on the table, and desired me not to open it, which I was 
about doing. As soon as the absence of the servant 
allowed her to tell me privately, she said she had had a 
curious Dream about a letter, and she wished me not to 
open the letter, until she had related it to me. She said 
she dreamed that she saw a letter lying on something like 
a table; it was unopened^ and she had a perception from 
the direction that it was for me. She then saw a man 
standing in a thoughtful position, as if looking at her or 
the letter : but she knew that he was in some way or other 
connected with the letter. In reply to a suggestion of 
mine, she did not think it was the postman whom she saw. 
Presently her attention was arrested by some noise in ano- 
ther apartment, and on looking in, she saw, what appeared 
something like a funeral party, and a coffin with a male 
corpse in it, and the persons in the room were alarmed 
because the corpse would not lie still, but kept moving the 
arms, and rising up. She said to them, ** Let me go in ; I 
am not afraid of a corpse ; send for the man to screw the 
coffin up, and I will keep him (the corpse) quiet.** Then, 
very oddly, she took a bunch of keys, and jingled them to 
the corpse to keep it quiet, as might be done to an infant 
in a cradle ! Her attention was now drawn away from 
this room, to where she had seen the letter, which she saw 
again, and the man standing by it also, but with the usual 
incongruity of dreams, the man and the corpse seemed, 
somehow, the same. But now the letter appeared as if 
opened before her, and she saw that the envelope con* 
tained two sheets of note paper, written upon, and that 
one of these sheets had a piece, — about half a leaf, cut off; 
and that there was a plain piece of paper besides in the 
envelope, which appeared to be cut off the sheet. Just at 
this time she was accidentally awakened by my daughter, 



APPENDIX. 217 

who sleeps with her, and the dream seemed as if inters 
rupted, or prematurely closed. 

I now again examined the envelope, which was tightly 
sealed and evidently untouched, and indeed, it had not 
been delivered half an hour. On breaking it open, I found 
to my surprise, that the contents tvere exctctfy as she de^ 
scribed them^ as seen in her dream I There were two 
sheets of note paper, written upon ; one with a piece cut 
ofT, about a quarter of the sheet : and a piece of plain pa- 
per, apparently of the same kind, and fitting to the cut 
portion ; but not quite so large as the portion removed. 
Here, then, was unmistakeable ocular demonstration of 
the correctness of the images presented in the dream. But 
this, although the most sensible proof of the certainty of 
unknown facts being presented to the mind in sleep, was, 
perhaps, not the most interesting circumstance. The first 
paragraph of my sister's letter referred to the recent decease 
of a cousin, a Parochial Clergyman in Suffolk. Here was 
the equally evident reason for the association, in the dream, 
of a death-scene with the letter. But neither the envelope 
nor its contents were of mourning paper, so that there was 
nothing externally, to lead to the idea of mourning or death. 

I have observed, that Emma's common sleep often 
partakes of a mesmeric character, inasmuch as I have 
frequently been obliged to make demesmerising passes 
before she could be aroused. I concluded, therefore, 
that if I mesmerised her, I should learn some further 
particulars. In the evening I did so ; and she now knew 
all about it. She saw the letter as in her dream, and the 
'* man" also ; but she now recognised him as a gentleman 
I had a good while ago sent her to see, and she reminded 
me of what she then told me. This was an experiment I 
made more than two years since, in sending her in the 
'^ sleep" to see my late cousin, and the correctness of her 
remarks as to some papers, &c., was confirmed in a letter I 
afterwards received from him. She said this gentleman 
had not long ** shelled," (died,) which was correct. That 
he was one who had been in the habit of preaching, and 
that hig removal was much lamented. That he was a good 
man, and she saw him rising out of the " middle place." 
In the mesmeric state, she saw that the dream was only a 
sort of representation. The movements of the corpse were 
significative of the rising of the spirit, and the jingling o/ 
the keys, had reference to a door she saw, which was only 



218 APPBMDIX. 

a representation ; ae the passage from one state to another 
was like going through a door, but not really so. She 
now said, that she had seen my sister also, during the night; 
but she has neyer yet seen her personally. 

Here is a curious concatenation of circumstances. Emma 
saysy that she had mentally seen the writer of an unex- 
pected letter : she accurately describes the form of the con- 
tents of the envelope, from what she saw in her dream, and 
she connects this with the death of a gentleman. Clearly, 
then, the train of ideas was obtained from the mind of the 
writer, who was two hundred miles off; at least, no other 
mode of accounting for such a dream seems so simple or 
reasonable. But this admission as clearly recognises the 
possibility of mental association, although the bodily pre- 
sence of the parties is far removed from each other, and 
one' party is unconscious of the connection. This case 
illustrates the modta operandi of Mr. Willey's case, and 
others, referred to in the work. As to the post-mortem 
state of the gentleman referred to, of course, we can have 
no means of sensibfy proving or disproving Emma's state- 
ments. But from the character and past occupation of the 
gentleman, and the harmony of Emma's account with the 
whole tenor of her extatic revealments, we may rationally 
conclude, that here also, she.mo^ have had a true vision. 
And we may consider this as another proof of what may be 
caUed dte spiritual side of mesmerism, and the short comings 
and error of Atheistical Materialism. 

Db. Yauohan on Miracles, &c. — ^It has been already 
stated in general terms, at pp. 83 and 203, that a right psy- 
chical interpretation of the higher magnetic or mesmeric 
phenomena, is calculated to throw light on some of the 
most remarkable narratives in the gospel history. The 
delicacy of the subject, and the fear of being misunder- 
stood or misrepresented, was the reason, why this point 
was only just glanced at. My attention has, however, re- 
cently been directed to the observations on MmAoi.ES, in 
Dr. Yaughan's *^ Age and Christianity," which I have 
perused with much pleasure and interest. The learned 
Doctor's views are not altc^ether new ; but still, I believe 
new to, and perhaps in advance of, general theological 
opinion. '' We are not prepared to believe, that the ulti- 
mate end of the existing system, will consist in anything 
merely physical — ^in any set of relations between cause 
and effect in material things. We must suppose, that the 



APPENDIX. 219 

physical, in general, is designed to be the servant of the 
moral, no less certainly, than the body of man is designed 
to be the servant of the soul. If so, who can affect to 
comprehend the whole purpose of Deity in relation to the 
universe ? Who can, in consequence, be competent to say 
to what extent it has been expedient, or may again become 
expedient, to subordinate the physical laws of the present 

system to moral ends? To * contradict,' to * violate,' 

to 'reverse' if you please, a physical law for a moral 
reason, may be as much an act of wisdom as the origina- 
tion ; and in place of bespeaking a contradiction or incon- 
sistency in the mind of Deity, as the argument now under 
examination supposes, it may only be a new indication of 
the immutability of the divine 4>urpose, in seeking the 
highest ends by the best means, subordinating, with this 
view, the less to the greater, the material to the spiritual. 

^But further, — Suppose it should be 'made to appear 

that a miracle is not, as is here assumed, the violation of a 
law of nature ? Suppose it could be shewn that a miracle 
is simply a natural effect, following from some special 
relation given to purely natural causes? Would not a 
miracle, in this case, cease to be a ' contradiction ' in the 
sense asserted, and so cease to be an Mmpossibility ?' 
Now this is surely conceivable. £vents, taking with them 
all that we intend by the term miracle, may be, in so far 
as their immediate causes are concerned, strictly natural. 
By a miracle, then, we do not understand even a suspen- 
sion, much less a violation of natural laws, but simply, such 
a control of natural causes as bespeaks the intervention of 
a cause to which they are all secondary and obedient. 
The old relations of cause and effect remain strictly as they 
were, but a new power has come in, capable of giving a 
particular direction to natural causes, so that a particular 
event follows ; and as no one can doubt the power of the 
Divine Being so to interpose himself, if we suppose him to 
exist, the whole question, whether there may be miracles 
OP not, resolves itself into another, viz., — ^whether there 
may be a God or not? — (Age and Christianity, pp. 88 — 91 .) 
If I understand the Doctor's reasonings, what is generally 
considered as a miracle, and, therefore, incomprehensible, 
may be obHj an event, proceeding from the operation of a 
law not generally known, or recognized, but which law 
may be as fixed and determinate in its action, as what are 
called the natural laws of the universe. A miracle is. 



220 APPKNDIX. 

therefore, properly, what the original term d^fnamu, and 
the Latin, miraeummf from whence our word miracle^ im- 
plies, — a powerful act^ a wonderful occurrence, and ** a m js- 
terj;" because, according to the true meaning of that term, 
a thing not jet understood. Without calling in question 
the possibility of the immediate interrention of Deity, it 
appears to me quite clear, that some of the miracles of the 
New Testament require no immediate intervention, but 
simplj the operation of the superior, spiritual, or psjchical 
law ; and the existence and nature of that law is indicated 
bj the observed phenomena of vital magnetism and extasis. 
It is not meant bj any statement here made, to deny the 
Divine Agency, or that the Saviour acted by His own 
power, and l£s disciples in His name; but, that this 
power, or agency, was manifested by a law still operative. 

Take the instance of the Transfiguration. How clumsy 
and perfectly gratuitous is the assumption of Dr. Adam 
Clarke and others, who have supposed that Moses and 
Elias were furnished for the occasion with new material 
bodies, to be seen by the disciples, and then to be dissipated 
in an instant ! How clear is it, that the occurrence was an 
extatic vision, in which, for the time, the outward natural 
sense was closed, and inner vision opened, by which they 
not only saw the "spiritual bodies" of Moses and Elias, 
but the Divine spiritual body of their Master! When the 
inner vision closed, they saw ^* no man, save Jesus only," 
and Him in His ordinary appearance. 

Take again, the appearance of the Saviour to the dis- 
ciples, after his resurrection, when they were assembled in 
the closed room. How plain is it, from the strictest letter 
of the Sacred Narrative, that, notwithstanding " a spirit 
had not flesh and bones as he had," yet that, from the mode 
of His appearance and disappearance, and the various formSy 
under which He appeared, that His divine, or, as the 
Apostle calls it, " glorious body," had nothing like the pro- 
perties of fixed, inert matter attached to it! Here, again, 
the simple opening and closing of the extatic vision ex- 
plains the whole mystery ; and also, that of his eating with 
them, and apparent atmospheric ascent from Bethany to 
heaven, — an event so opposed to the now known physical 
constitution of the universe. If it be said, that the dis- 
ciples thought, or believed, they saw these things by ordi- 
nary vision, — ^perhaps they did think so; possibly they 
could not help it, unless they had been controlled by persons 



221 

in the normal state, who ooald have infomied tfaem of the 
change which had, unoonscionslj to themsrfvcB, paaaed 
over them. Facts are not less i&ds, because they are not 
sach as vulgarly comprehended. 

In the cases of healing, we also sec oertain means 
adopted, thongh apparently inadequate to the result. Two 
blind men foUowed Jesus (MatL ix. 27), and besought him 
to give them sight. He *^ touched Aeir et^ and "thdr 
eyes were opened," and they saw! He *^tameked^ e^ 
also of the two blind mea. sitting by the wayside near 
Jericho (xx. 34), and " immediatdy thdr eyes received 
sight." To restore the blind man at Bethsaida ( Marit viiL 
23), "Zfe spitanhig eyes, nnd put kit hands an him/' 
When the lame man was cured at the temple gate, Peter 
and John *^ fastened their eyes upon Mm," and Peter, took 
him by the right hand and tifted hhn up" (Acts iL 4, 7). 
When Paul perceived that the cripple of Lystra (Acts xiv. 
8) ''hadfaith to be healed," he ^steadfadly beheld him, 
while he cried with a load voice. Stand upright on thy 
feet ! " Possibly it would not be too much to infer, that 
from the differing narratives of the Sacred Historians, 
some significant action was performed at every cure, al- 
though not expressly mentioned. It is not meant that Jesus 
could not have performed the cures without these significant 
actions, but we must conclude that these actions were dictated 
by perfect wisdom, and that the best means were adopted. 

Dr. Vaughan says (page 90), "Suppose sight to be given 
to the blind, hearing to the deaf, and even life to the dead ; 
it is here to be remembered that as there are natural causes 
which produce blindness, and deafness, and death, so there 
are natural causes which give sight, and hearing, and life. 
Hence, a miracle, may be no more than the putting of one 
set of these causes into action in place of another." Whe- 
ther the doctor means that the parties stated in the New 
Testament history to be raised to life, were not really dead, 
in the common acceptation of the term, I know not ; we 
have no evidence in either of the recorded cases, of any 
organic change, or decomposition, and we know not how long 
life may sometimes be latent in the body. Still, that these 
miracles were genuine, in the true sense of the word, and such 
as only superhuman power could effect, is, I think, certain, 

CONFIBMATION OP THE THEORr OP SlEEP, PROM 

Babon Reichenbach. — After the manuscript of this work 
was in the printer's hands, Professor Gregory, of Edin- 



222 AFPSITDIX. 

bargh, verj kindly sent me a copy of his elegant transla*- 
tion of Baix>n Beichenbach's '* Researches in Magnetism, 
Electricity, &c., in their relation to the Vital Force." I 
was, on perusing it, much gratified to find such a general 
harmony with the results of my own experiments; the 
difference, where it exists, being such as might be expected 
to arise from a different mode of investigation. Not the 
least remarkable thing to me, was, to find the Baron mclr- 
ree^ substantiating tiie doctrines I have inculcated, as to 
the relative activities of the cerebrum and cerebellum, 
during wakefulness and sleep! If what I have stated is 
correct, and the odylic influence proceeds with greater or 
less energy from different portions of the cerebral mass, 
during wakefulness and sleep, it must proceed in the way 
the Baron says it does. So that the clairvoyant physiology 
of the brain, and the Baron's researches, in this particular, 
mutually corroborate each other. At p. 200, No. 266, we 
read, — " There is a greater anatomical difference between 
forehead and hindhead than between the two sides of the 
brain, and I was desirous also to investigate this. The ob- 
servation was twice made, each time for twenty-four hours, 
on the 19th and 20th of October, and the result is given in 
fig. 7, pi. ii. (In the plate, the curves represent the odylic 
ii^uence rising in the hindhead, almost in exact proportion 
to its fall in the forehead, and vice versa; so that the great- 
est depression of the one very nearly coincides with the 
greatest elevation of the other.) The difference here ap- 
peared in the form of stronger polar opposition. The fore- 
head, in general, was cold, the hindhead very warm, and 
not only in human beings, but also in animals. The patient 
observed it in the cat of the house; and when taken to my 
stables, also in horses and cows; the depression in the back 
of the neck, in the latter, being especially hot to her. The 
human forehead rose quickly in the morning, with the grey 
light of dawn, was little affected by the two periods of hun- 
ger, and reached its maximum after sunset. During all 
this time the hindhead remained nearly stationary; so that, 
at 6 P.M., it stood where it had been at 6 a.m. But now 
it began to rise, almost exactly at the time that the forehead 
began to fall. From this point the lines cross each other; 
that of the hindhead rising till 3 a.m., while that of the 
forehead falls till about the same time; at which one reaches 
its maximum, the other its minimum. From this time 
they again pursue opposite courses; and while the hind- 



APPENDIX. 223 

bead, which at 3 a.m. is very high, rapidly falls, the fore- 
head, which at 4 a.m. is very low, begins to rise with equa 
rapidity. No. 267. This play of forces is the image of our 
sleeping and waking. The forehead represents the waking 
state, the hindhead, that of sleep. The former becomes ac- 
tive from the first peep of dawn, and increases till sanset. 
It then loses the supply of odyle, derived from the sun, and 
sinks continually till the new day breaks, when its force 
again begins to rise. On the other hand, the hindhead 
rests nearly motionless during the prevalence of daylight 
[the Baron means motionless, as respects the emission of 
odylic influence], but as the sun sinks below the horizon, 
its hour for labour strikes. The Morpheus then rises, and 
with rapid steps mounts up, till the first traces of early 
dawn remind him that the forehead is on its way to relieve 
its watch. The hindhead, at the close of night, falls as 
continuously and rapidly to its lowest level, as was the 
cade with the forehead at the close of day. They are, 
therefore, not only oppositely polar, the forehead being 
cool and negative^ the hindhead warm and positive ; but 
they are also diametrically opposite in the exercise of their 
functions, as are day and night, waking and sleeping. 
268. Vitality is just as active during sleep as in the waking 
state ; its durection only is changed. The phenomenon of 
sleep is governed by the posterior part of the brain, pro* 
bably by the cerebellum^ while the forehead ceases, from its 
mental labour ; and when the forehead again, under the 
influence of the solar rays, resumes its activity, the hind- 
head relinquishes its claims on the vital energies." 

*^ No. 269. Fig. 4, pi. ii., exhibits a small, but not unim- 
portant confirmation of the above. On one occasion I be- 
came sleepy soon after dinner, and leaning my head on the 
back of my chair, and fell asleep for ten minutes. During 
this sleep, as well as shortly before it and shortly after it, 
Mile. Beichel (one of the 'sensitives' employed in these 
experiments,) had examined the state of my hand. The 
figure gives the result of these observations, made between 
4 and 5 p.m. The force of my hand, instead of steadily rising, 
as on all other days at this period, made an anomalous leap 
downwards, after which it resumed and continued the normal 
rise. The short nap in which I had indulged, had been suf- 
fident to cause a very sensible inversion of odyle in my per- 
son. As long as I slept, the force in my hand rapidly sank ; 
the ordinate, representing it, became shorter, and only 



i2i 



APPENDIX* 



lengthened again when I had awakened, and all the vital 
functions had once more entered on their former course." 

The harmony of these results with the office and activi- 
ties of the cerebrum and cerebellum^ as pointed out in 
Chapter IIL, will be obvious to everj attentive reader. 
The Baron may be right in making the relative activities 
of the forehead and hindhead depend on the reception of 
odyle from the sun ; but he appears to have overlooked the 
greater influence of inial chemiHry in producing the results 
enumerated. The cerebrum presides over the faculties of 
mieUeetual and animal life ; and hence, while the activity 
of these faculties prevailed, the odylic influence of the fore- 
head prevailed ; when sleep was induced, the intellectual 
and animal faculties became quiescent, but the vegetative^ 
organic functions proceeded with greater, because uninter- 
rupted, activity; hence, also, the odylic influence in the 
htmd sank^ while it rose in the cerebellum, 

Deyelofkbnt of New States in Emma. — The reader 
will have perceived the gradual devel<^ment of Emma's 
lucid powers, as narrated in Chap. V. It does not seem 
that the full powers of the human mind are yet displayed ; 
and hence, our investigations in this branch of knowledge, 
will assume more of a progressive, than a finished character. 
Towards the close of 1850, after the MS. of the foregoing 
sheets were placed in the printer's hands, Emma had some 
peculiar states of semi-trance, in which she said that fur- 
ther changes were coming over her, and that she would be- 
come yet more lucid, so as to see by the internal lucid 
faculty when awake. It will be recollected, that when so 
far demesmerised as to be consciously lucid, her eyelids re- 
mained closed, and the eyeballs turned upwards and in- 
wards, shewing that she was stiU partially under the mes- 
meric influence. The first time I witnessed this new 
faculty, or further development of the old one, was on 
Monday, the 17th of February, in this year. She had a 
perception of the time of the approaching change on the 
previous Saturday, saying, in the mesmeric state, that she 
kept hearing, or had the impression of hearing, the words, 
"After Sunday, Monday," — ^and that she perceived it meant, 
that on the day following the next Sunday, she should experi- 
ence a change, and that, until that change occurred, she should 
not possess her usual lucidity. Indeed, she had not sufii- 
cient lucidity then, even to perceive me, her mesmeriser. 

On the Monday, I found her very dull and heavy ; hardly 



APPENDIX. 225 

Able to keep herself awake. About 10 a.h. I put ber in 
the ** sleep," and was then informed, that the change had 
passed over her, and that the fibres of her brain had fallen 
more forward, and that the forward movement was now 
communicated to the cerebellum. That if I asked her re* 
specting such subjects as Franklin, or ''other proper 
things, but not everything," and did not fully understand 
her, and was to take her by the hand, and question her 
when demesmerised and fully awake, she should be able to 
recal the vision in her wakeful state ; but I could not under- 
stand whether she meant, that she should remember the 
m^meric vision, and thus be able to recal it. At half-past 
twelve I put her in the " sleep" to try this, and gave her a 
letter written by Captain Austin, the commander of the 
expedition in search of Sir J. Franklin, and desired her to 
find the writer if she could. After a short time taken in 
travelling and searching, she seemed to have done so, and 
spoke very cheerfully, as if to the captain ; presently she 
said, as if still speaking to him, "I must go and see my old 
friend, Franklin." She professed to speak to him also, and 
said he was farther from England than Captain Austin. 
She again had a perception of time, and stated the hour at 
both places, and the difference with the time in Bolton, 
gave a western longitude of 101° to 102° to Franklin, and 
93° to 94° to Captain Austin. She again spoke of Frank- 
lin being relieved by a '' whiteheaded man," but now said 
it was not Sir J. Ross. On demesmerising her, I asked 
her if she could remember anything she had told me ? but 
found, that, as usual, she did not. 1 then took her by the 
hand, and looked at her, so as to avoid mesmerising her, 
and said, — Can you see Franklin's ships now ? She said 
not ; but presently she shrieked, clung to me, and exhibited 
evident signs of terror. I endeavoured to allay this ; and, 
when sufficiently calmed, she said. That suddenly the walls 
of the room seemed to vanish, and to change to high white 
hills (icebergs?) and rocks, with snow piled up. Then an 
old man looking at her, who was reclining on a sort of 
bench, or box; his cheeks looked puffed, but sunken. 
Heard a noise, as of animals " grunting," &c. I inquired, 
Do you know the old man, or have you seen him before? 
She replied, that she had not seen him before, and there 
seemed to be no identification in her mind, with the Frank- 
lin of her mesmeric sleeps. She begged of me to remove 
the vision, if possible, as she felt so terrified. I observed that 



226 AFPrnKDOu 

her heart was beatiiig yiolenUj, and nuide quick traii8Y< 
paaaes hefore her eyes, and over her right hand, to change 
the currents, and the yision soon disappeared. In ^e 
aftemooo I tried again, but found it produced such Tiol^it 
excitement of the heart, that I was obliged to desist 

On the 19th of Februarj, I had her in << the sleep " for 
a medical purpose, when she suddenly spoke of seeing 
Franklin, the ships, the ice, he. This was the first time I had 
heard her speak of the vision coming to her^ as she has had to 
travel, as it were, to the person sought. This may have 
been a mere re-excitation of the images in her memory ; 
but it was so far interesting, as she said, that in the after- 
noon, between two and three o'clock, she should see this 
awake, without my mesmerising her. I found, on demes* 
merising her, that she did not recollect what she had said, 
and, to ascertain the correctness of her pre-vision, 1 did not 
tell her; bul took care to be in the room about that time, 
that I might, unobserved, watch the result. About half- 
past two, she was endeavouring to write a copy, when she 
complained of feeling strange, and presently said, she felt 
as if the copy-book had jumped into her bosom, and would 
not feel satisfied that something had not been put there, 
until she removed her dress to search ; and even then the 
sensation, or impression, remained. On another occasion, 
I noticed a precisely similar sensation ; and the professional 
reader will, I have no doubt, conclude, with the writer^ 
that some great impression had been made on the solar 
plexus of organic nerves, which caused the imaginative 
feeling of something being put into her chest. 

Presently she ceased speaking of the sensation in her 
bosom, gave a start, and shrieked aloud. I desired her to 
be tranquil, and dispel her alarm, and seated myself by her 
side to assure her. She said, the room again suddenly ap- 
peared to open, and yet she was perfectly aware of the 
place she was in. This vision lasted about half an hour, 
when she relapsed into the mesmeric state, from which I 
aroused her in the usual way. From her vivid exclama- 
tions and descriptions, it seemed as if a moving panorama 
of detached scenes was passing before her, and each scene 
seemed to vanish, and then, after a short pause, to be suc- 
ceeded by another. She said, she felt as if going round in 
water, — ^now a deep rolling sea, — water — wsXeir — ^nothing 
but water; no land to be seen; — ^now two ships under 
sail, — a pause ; — sees people in the ships ; — ^now sees the 



APPENDIX. 227 

same person she saw on Monday noon, when awake, 
but he looks plumper, and his hair darker, — ^knows now 
that it is Franklin. — Now it is getting dark and dismal. 
Suddenly she exclaimed — Oh! oh! and seemed excited and 
alarmed. I inquired. What is the matter? Oh! such a 
large fish jumped up there, or something like a fish. Now 
I see the ships fast in ice ; there are three near together. 
Another exclamation of, Oh ! oh ! and clinging to me for 
security. Oh I what are those sparks jumping up? Oh! I 
am so frightened. Is this the place where the rainbows 
come from? Here Emma began to give a vivid description 
of the Northern Lights, as if really visible to her, starting 
and clinging to me, as the scintillations shot forth. I en- 
deavoured to calm her, by explaining these lights to her. 
She again spoke of Franklin as being alive, but said she 
could see many buried under the snow. Whether this is 
to be considered an original vision, or a projection of the 
images stored up in the mesmeric condition of the brain, is, 
perhaps, difficult to determine. This vision would seem to 
be a representation of Sir John's voyage across the Atlantic, 
and up Baffin's Bay to the polar regions, and then to be 
mixed up with the present state of the voyagers. In this 
vision, she spoke of seeing persons dressed in skins, as 
somehow connected with Franklin. These I took to be 
Esquimaux. As to the safety of Sir J. Franklin, I can 
only repeat, what has before been said, that if Emma has 
not confounded the present with a former expedition that 
he undertook, and mixed up the occurrences of both voy- 
ages, the presumption is, that he still survives. I have 
since tried her with an old letter of Sir John Ross', which 
carried her (mentally) to various places, before she followed 
him to the Arctic regions, and she has confirmed her state- 
ment above given, that Sir John Boss is not the <' white- 
headed man" she spoke of. She says, that he is not far 
from Franklin, but cannot see him for the ** ice houses;*' 
meaning, probably, the intervening lands covered with ice 
and snow, or the icebergs. She described Sir John Ross 
as a whiteheaded man, in a small ship, and as being an old 
friend of Sir J. Franklin. 

Emma described the person who had met with Franklin, 
as coming in a very little ship, not ^^a proper ship," she 
said ; and also, as not coming from England. She also re- 
peatedly spoke of a sort of iron knife, or keel, connected 
with this little ship. The whole of these statements ap- 



228 APPENDIX. 

peared veiy mjsterious, and puzzled me to account for 
them. But in March, of the present year, the publication 
of a letter from Captain Pullen, commanding a boat expe- 
dition in search of Franklin, of which I was ignorant, 
throws some light on the matter. This letter was dated, 
Jul J 16th, 1850, and the writer states his intention to en- 
deavour to reach Banks' Land, from the mouth of the Mac- 
kenzie River. It is just possible that he maj have done 
so, and been fortunate enough to meet with the object of 
hb search. Since reading this letter, I have asked Emma, 
and compared her present with her former statements, and 
it would seem, that this is the relieving party that she 
meant She accurately described the skin dresses of this 
party, and sufficiently explained what she meant by the 
epithet of ''white-headed;" but as this was after I had 
read the letter, I think less of it, as I am always fearful of 
her reflecting my ideas, or getting the train from my me- 
mory. I merely record it for the sake of &;mpari8on, 
when the events are known. It may turn out, that the 
party she spoke of, on the 19th of February, whom I 
took to be Elsquimaux, may be Capt Pullen's party. 

After a few days' occasional exhibition of the faculty of 
wakeful lucidity, Emma lost it ; but it again returned, and 
I have now observed it many times. She has frequently 
spoken of various internal parts of the human organism, as 
visible to her, especially portions of the brain ; the course 
of the blood ; the form of the blood corpuscles; the condition 
in some states of disease, &c.: but she has not fully con- 
quered the feelings the vision occasions, and complains of 
sickness, if it remains more than a few minutes at a time. 
It would appear, that objects are seen singly, in the order 
that the mind is directed towards them, and greatly magni- 
fied. While looking at any inward portion of the body, 
the outer portions and investments seem, for the time, as if 
absent, or transparent. I asked her, in one of these states, 
• if she distinctly saw the paper on the walls of the room ? 
She replied that she did, but that the pattern seemed im- 
mensely large, and so strange, that, but for memory, she 
should scarcely have known what she was looking at. In 
the mesmeric state, this perception of increased magnitude, 
does not seem to exist, or it does not interfere with the 
vision. Emma could not say how she saw, only that every- 
thing appeared light. 

Repeatedly, when I have had Emma in the ** sleep" and 



APPENDIX. 229 

she has forgotten the name of a person, or place, or heen 
unable to pronounce a word properly, she has instinctivelj 
placed a finger on the top of her head, near to the spot 
marked as '* firmness," when she could recollect the for- 
gotten name, or pronounce the required word. Observing 
this, when I have found her unable to pronounce aright, or 
forgetful of a name, I have placed my finger there, and the 
same result has followed. Sometimes, she has found her- 
self unable to pronounce words beginning with '' W," and 
has substituted a ^^B," but, on pressing with the finger, she 
could utter the proper " W sound, lie interchange of the 
sounds of Wand B, as the finger was pressed on the cranium, 
or removed, has frequently produced very amusing results. 
In the ludd wakeful state just mentioned, Emma first disco- 
vered- tiie reason of this instinctive action, for by thus using 
the fingers, she said, she pressed on '^memory," which she re- 
presents as located in one of the ganglia under the cerebrum. 
But an investigation of this subject I reserve for another work. 
Mb. Atkinson and Miss Mabtineau on the " Laws of 
Man's Natube and Development." — When about half 
the foregoing sheets were printed, the writer had the oppor- 
tunity of perusing the above-named work. The perusal 
led him to re- consider the principles he has adopted and 
advocated ; — viz.. The existence of a Great First Cause, as 
the Creator and Sustainer of the universe ; the recognition 
of universal law in nature, as the manifested expression of 
the Creator's will ; and the spirituality, yet true substanti- 
ality and immortality of the human soul. According to 
these gifted authors, such a belief is but a relic of super- 
stition, having no foundation in fact : a God is but a theo- 
logical fiction : atheism, the only faith worthy of a philo- 
sopher. Paley's argument for a designer, from the unmis- 
takeable design and adaptation displayed in nature, is a 
weak and silly thing. Nature, we are told, is but the re- 
sult of development and law. And, what is the strangest 
thing, perhaps, with an open and exultingly avowed atheism 
and materialism, we have an admission of the highest psy- 
chical phenomena; such as pre- vision, presentiments, or 
even actual vision and perception of the death of indivi«- 
duals in remote parts of the country, and the highest mani- 
festations of clairvoyance ! This is not the place, even if 
space 'permitted it, to enter into a formal examination of 
what appears to me, in many places, as but mere self-com- 
placent assertions, totally unproved, and, perhaps, capable 



280 APPSHDnc. 

of refatation, from oiher portions of the work. But I de- 
sire most explicitly, to enter my protest against the views 
inculcated^ believing them to be as diametrically opposed 
to the troths of mesmerism, which these writers espouse^ 
as to the truths of Christianity which they deny. And, 
after a careful consideration, I see no reason to abandon 
the position I have taken, feeling persuaded, that what- 
ever difficulties attend the full comprehension, or under- 
standing, of these abstruse subjects, they will not be less- 
ened by the adoption of materialism. 

It may serve to give piquancy to their remarks, but is, 
I think, scarcely worthy of such writers as Mr. Atkinson 
and Miss Martineau, to confound the notions of a popular 
theology, derived from a too literal interpretation of Scrip- 
ture, and the dogmas of the dark ages, with a rational be- 
lief in the great truths of religion. Assuredly it is 
possible to hold the latter, without consenting to any 
particular formula of theological dogmas. A firm be- 
liever in Scripture, may see, that all theology, must, of 
necessity, be on one side human ; that is, the language of 
theology must embody the human apprehension even of 
divine truth. It is not, then, unreasonable to expect, that 
an enlarged development of theology will accompany the 
enlarged and growing perceptions of philosophical Chris- 
tians. Besides, for some of the popular '* absurdities," 
as they style them, ^ Scriptures are not answerable. 
For instance, creation, in the Scripture sense, does not 
mean a making of something out of nothing, as may be 
seen by an examination of the Hebrew word. Philo- 
sophy, and not M9ses, is accountable for that '^ absurdity." 
Atheism and Pantheism alike proceed from an oversight, 
or ignorance of the law of degrees, to which I have briefly 
adverted in Chapter lY. 

It is a gross abuse of language, to limit the term sub- 
stance, to such forms and conditions as we usually associ- 
ate with the term matter. Not one of the properties 
usually spoken of in defining matter, are discernible in the 
imponderable elements. We here see, that different orders 
of substances have laws and properties peculiar to them- 
selves ; and the observed effects of mind, shew that it has 
a law and properties, distinct again from those of the im- 
ponderable elements. Let the idea of mind, as a sub- 
stantial existence, manifesting itself by certain definite 
effects, be further elevated and purified, by the withdrawal 



APPENDIX. 231 

of limitation and derivatioD, and we then have a conception 
of an infinite, substantial, and self-existent God. With 
the admission of a God, all nature becomes to us a series 
of affirmative propositions, mutually confirming each other. 
Law is, then, an intelligible term ; for we have a percep- 
tion of the power that is working by law ; whereas, law, in 
the materialistic, or atheistic, sense, is either an adynamic 
energy, if such a term may be used, or a force, without a 
subject of that force, or without an impulsive agent, which is a 
non-entity. I am aware, that the metaphysical doctrine of a 
Grod, has reduced him to an unsubstantial nothingness ; but 
such is not the view presented in the Christian Scriptures, 
nor was it entertained by the Christian Fathers. To me, 
there appears much wisdom in the language of Tertullian, 
quoted by the Bishop of Hereford, in his Bampton Lec- 
tures : ^^ Nihil enim, si non corpus. Omne qupd est, 
corpus est sui generis ; nihil est incorporale, nisi quod non 
est. Quis enim negabit Deum corpus esse, etsi Deus 
spiritus est? Spiritus enim corpus sui generis, in sua 
effigie." Here, corpus is used in a similar sense to that in 
which I have used the term substance. 
• Having repeatedly been asked for my opinion, I now 
very briefly advert to another work, quite the opposite to 
that just referred to ; I mean " Cahagnet's Celestial Tele^ 
graph, or the Secrets of the Other Life Unveiled, &c." If 
Miss Martineau and her coadjutor are deficient in faith, 
Cahagnet certainly is not ; but with him faith degenerates 
into credulity. In the absence of all personal knowledge, 
it would be wrong to assert any want of honesty, or inten- 
tion to deceive. But I have very great doubts as to the 
dependence which can be placed upon Cahagnet and his co- 
adjutors, as careful and trustworthy observers. The ten- 
dency to the marvellous is so evident, that even their 
soberest relations must be received with great caution. 
When, in the second volume, we find him speaking of ma- 
terial substances, such as lost jewels, boxes, &c., being 
brought from a distance, and transported with the velocity 
of lightning through space, at the potent command, or 
spell, of certain mesmeric or magic individuals ; and again, 
of showers of stones descending through impossible places, 
or in the way of miracle, we may reasonably question the 
judgment, if not the honesty, of a writer, who could gravely 
narrate such things. As to the stones, in one case, at 
least, the French police fully cleared up the mystery, and 



232 APPENDIX. 

proved the trickery and guilt of the chief witness. In 
other cases, it probablj only wanted the same vigilance. 

The spiritual visions, related in the first volume, may be 
true in a certain degree. Bui as they are all the result of 
indmeed extasis, they are mainly referable to mind-reading, 
or the reflection of the memories of the individuals in con- 
nection with the clairvoyant subject. Hence we see the 
notions of human souls, so conmion among French mes- 
merists, and other peculiar French ideas of religion and 
theology continually reflected. Some of the cases referred 
to, I have made matters of experiment with Emma, when 
in the state of spontaneous extasis, and altogether removed 
from my influence. The results have negatived Cahagnet's 
statements. In other cases, actions and manners are attri- 
buted to historical characters, such as Swedenborg, for 
instance, which their known history and habits sufficiently 
disprove. Thus, at p. 74, &c., voL ii., Cahagnet repre- 
sents Swedenboi^ as requested to magnetize scnne water, 
which he obliges them by doing. The water is duly 
labelled, when, lo, and behold! twice the writing vanishes, 
and then the spirit of Swedenborg is again evoked to ex- 
plain the mystery! He, the spirity had caused the disap- 
pearance of the material writing, because he wished the 
bottle to be labelled "spiritualized water!" How utterly 
discordant such things are with the character cf( Sweden- 
borg, any one, acquainted with his history, and the impass- 
able distinctions he made between matter and spirit, will 
readily perceive. As in the case of the stones, the trans- 
ported box, jewels, &c., there can be little doubt, but that 
some crafty material agent was at work somewhere. 

That there has been a great amount of exaggeration, and 
even of directly fraudulent misrepresentations connected 
with mesmerism, may be, alas ! true enough ; and by none, 
are such misdoings more deplored, than by the patient and 
truth-seeking observers of mesmeric phenomena. Quacks 
and impostors will intrude themselves wherever they can 
profit by public credulity, as the advertisements in oar 
own newspapers too plainly shew, l^he only satisfaction to 
the true and honest inquirer, is,that the presence of the coun- 
terfeit shews that the true coin really exists. The dishonest 
pretender, and the too credulous narrator, though not alike 
morally guilty, may be equally injurious to the promulgation 
of real mesmeric truth, by raising justifiable suspicions in 
the minds of those ignorant of the real facts of the case. 



No. 1. 

I DUGRAU OIT A Sscnon OF THE BbjUH 
OF THE FiBBBa. 



1. The Cortical Spbernlea en Glands. 

2. The Kadialing White Fibrca descending from the circumfisrence of the 

Cerebrum to the Anterior Columas of the Spinal MHrTOW, and ascend- 
ing from the Sensory Columns. 

3. The Ganglia of increase of Gall and SpurKheim, known as the Thalami 

Optici, and Corpora Striata. 

4. The Cerebellnm laid open, showing its leaf-like appearance, lbs Arbor 

Vine i irlth tbe Fibres from Ibe Medulla Oblun(rata entering It. 

5. The Pone Varolii. 

G. The Medulla ObloDgnlo. 



1 I. The OIQKtorr Heri'B. 

3. The TliLn] Fair, or Ifolom Oculoram. 

CnnlDm, dlgliilHiled to Ibe Head u 
6. Tbe Slilli Filr. Tlie fupm aUuVIa on 




Pair. Tbe u| 
fireCBlon. The lo' 



The tiro ilda of <be Ccnbellnm. 
IB Vennlfonn Ttoaem- 
>. ITie Pyruolda] BoiUa. 



r* 



C C. Sphwl Strra. 

D D D. Uotar Kmta, with KmU imang from the Aotciior Oohnw tf 
the Spinal HarroVp 

)£R. Gmglions, on tlMPoMcrior part of the Spinal Ncms, vilh Road m> 
Icring Ibe Foriaior ColBnins vf (be Spcul Uarnii). Then ■>« th* 
Srntoiy Serro, which coan^ the impnaiaa it Fttimj ta Ih* Bnii^ 
and which beoMnc dormant in the idTUKad it^ia of HoNainMih 
prododDg what i> called Amatltaitt. 



No. 4. • 

ION or TBB BBAIH DOBKUTtat, BHBWmO A HUKBBB Ot HONB 

[S DISCBinHHO PBOM Oira or TBB HmaaFBBBBH or tBK ^BE- 

, PjUBUfO IinDKK TBE AROB OT THE OpTIO MeBVO, UD 

HOH THE Pons VAROUt, ATO OONVEBQIBa TO FOBK THE 

Amtbhior Colvhit of the Sfihai. Marboiv. 



1. Motor Fibree. S. Arch of tha Optic Stnet. 

3. Poiu T&Tolii cat throagb. 4. HedulU Oblcmgtt*. 

5. Aoterior Colunia of Spinal Harrow, rigbt sid( Tbe Isfl h«lf is coTWed 

vith tha investing Hambrane. 

6. Column of Sansory Fibrei, juomding from tha Posterior Colnmn of tha 

Spinal HaiToir, going towards tbe Fifth or Great Cranial Nerre. 

7. Seventh pair of Nerves, or Aodltory and FadaL 

8. Eighth pair,— Pneumogastric, or Par Tagnm. The filaments by which 

it arises ara sean more distiaclly here, than la the engraving of llie 
Base of the Brain. 
0. Spinal Accessory Nerve. 



A DuoUM iLLunBATOa mx Stiifathbtio ajto PnuHoaAsriiio 
STBrrus or NEsm. 



I. Th« Pons Varolii. 



4. Ilu Sfrinal Harrow. 

9 9. Spinal Merre*. 

6 6. "Hie Great SrmpithcUe Nerrca, dMccndiiig od cacb dde of tbe Spinal 
GihiinD, and Tormins TUioiu Ganglia, or twdlinga In Uunr amne, 
from which fliunenis arc Hmt forth in varicni dinctiraia, to the Pnau- 
mogutric Nerve in the Neck, aod to Tariom Siriiutl Mtrre*. 



J 7, Ganglia of the rDeomogutiio Nervea. 



No. 6. 
Taa Prdicipai. Artebibs of the Bbaih, bbkoved fi 



counmaATioiiB, called the Circle of Willis. The Abhows shew 



,. , , , f thB B«ie of the Briln, In the Ctntn] OrooT* 

of the Pom Vuolll. 
t. nie Inteniil CuDttd Artsilei. -Thneirt thept<ndpi1utetle)ciftbE Cenbmm. 

Antitlor Canlml Arlectea. 
i. HlddlB Cenlnl Aneri», 
S, Opbtbiiliiilc Aitariee. 
7. PDKerlor Cenbn] Artailee. ' 



If tbe Oexma, or Inndlnge <^ Ihe Artarl 

BnlB,si|i*d*II}',ttiaIi)leiiialCuiitidAi . 

■ ■tirtiWi th« SnuIUr JW«i1n m gtna off. It 




lie oonlrol ot the ' 
[la Om Bnbn <^ uinula whIGh bang 





*LLED SlMnSKB, 




CH THE Blood 


Braih. 





3 3. The Lower, or Inferior, Longitndiiial Sinaa. 
4. The Fonith, or Straight, SinoB. 

5 5. Hie two Lateral Sinneea, which receive the Blood from tbe above- 

named Siniuea. The diUlation at Cheii jnnction ia tbe Toicnlar He- 
rophill 

6 6. The Internal Jngalar Telna ; the swellingg upon them correapond 

with the Jugular Fossn. 
By obeerring the comae of the Venous Blood, ae indicated by tbe arrows, it ' 
will be Ken that the Veins of tbe Superior Loogitodinal Slno*, enter 
tbatCbaniKliiiKdirectiancanfrvrylD tiedreoBio/tAsfilboit; aothat - 
while by the anangeiDeat of the Arteries, the Blood ia prevented from ' 
midnlj mleriag tbe Brain, the utuation and cootM of thete Ydni with 
reaped to the Sinus, have a similar tendency to nlard iti tieapt, and 
the tame effect ia anistad b; the horizontal coune of the Lateral 

7. The Termlnationa of the In^nior Petrowl Sinus. 



1. The Co^l«^ or ttanapaient ctae in firont of the Ey«. 

3. Tlis Anbtriot CIuunlwT, coDtainlng the Aqneons Hnmoar. 



4. The CrTstaltine LeoM; mora convex behind Hun before. 

d S. The Prindpil Chunber of the E]^ contunlng the Titreoaa homonr, 
encloeed in the Hyiloid Membrane, ind in edit fbnned by it, which 
srs representad Id aection b j the vary lines. 

6. The Sbnth of the Aitery of the Capeole of the CryBtalUne L«ds. 



8. The Cealnl Artery of the BeUna. 

9. The ITearilenu, ot covering of the Optic N«Tva. 



I" 



' A 



•><• 




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